|Province of San Francisco (en)|
San Francisco (es)
Thánh Phanxicô (vn)
Sankt Franziskus (de)
|— Province of Sierra —|
|Nickname(s): The Golden Gate Province (official), The Paris of the West, The Baghdad by the Bay, The Foggy Province, Frisco, San Fran, SF, The Bay|
Motto(s): Oro en Paz, Fierro en Guerra|
(Spanish: Gold in peace, iron in war)
|Provincial song(s): "San Francisco (Be Sure to Wear Flowers in Your Hair)"|
(and largest city)
|San Francisco City|
2,410 sq mi |
|• Total||1,615,896 (2010)|
670.5/sq mi (270.12/km2)|
|• Highest point||
2,603 ft (793 m)
|• Lowest point||sea level|
|Admission to the Union||November 28, 1858 (2nd)|
|Lord Superintendent||James Goldstein|
|Governor||Terry Scott (DR)|
|Lieutenant Governor||Indira Johannesen (DR)|
|Legislature||San Francisco Provincial Assembly (Unicameral)|
|• Upper house||None|
|• Lower house||None|
Ellen Chao (DR)|
Azita Delrahim (DR)
Victor Olague (SD)
|K.S. House delegation||
6 total commoners|
4 Social Democrats
Pacific Time Zone |
UTC –8/UTC –7
|Abbreviations||SF, SF, SFrn., SFran.|
Category • Topics
The Coast Miwok and Ohlone were the original inhabitants of San Francisco. The former lived on the Cape of Marin while the latter lived on the San Francisco Peninsula. In the late 18th century, San Francisco was claimed and settled by the Spaniards, although the region had been explored and traveled by other Europeans, mainly the Dutch colonists from modern-day Plumas and the Russians in Fort Ross, for nearly two centuries prior. In 1776, San Francisco City was founded with the establishment of Mission San Francisco de Assisi. San Francisco was administered as part of Alta California under Mexican rule before it was admitted as its own state in 1848 under the California Republic. During the Gold Rush, San Francisco experienced rapid growth, becoming the largest settlement on the North American West Coast at the time. After the Republic was reformed into the Kingdom, San Francisco was admitted as a province and its territorial boundaries extended beyond the San Francisco Peninsula to include the Cape of Marin just north of San Francisco City across the Golden Gate. San Francisco City was the capital of Sierra and seat of the monarchy for ten years from 1858 to 1868, and remained its largest city until 1901 when it was outranked by Porciúncula. San Francisco fell under Republican occupation during the Sierran Civil War before it was restored into the Kingdom in 1877.
San Francisco has continued to remain one of the most influential provinces economically, politically, and socially. It is considered a part of the Pacific Northwest and is sometimes included in varying definitions of the Styxie. Politically, San Francisco has always been deeply influenced by trade unionism and social liberalism. It is regarded as the most progressive province in the Kingdom, and it has consistently voted for Democratic-Republicans and Social Democrats since the 1960s. Liberalizing views in the province accelerated during the Colombia War as the "hippie" counterculture movement, Sexual Revolution, and the Peace Movement that emerged from within the province led to the Summer of Love and gay rights movement.
|San Francisco symbols|
|Amphibian||Pacific tree frog|
|Butterfly||West Coast lady|
|Crustacean||Stripped shore crab|
|Insect||Sierra carpenter bee|
|Reptile||Green sea turtle|
|Colors||Gold, white, and crimson|
|Motto||Oro en Paz, Fierro en Guerra|
|Poem||"The City By the Sea"|
|Ship||HRMS San Francisco|
|Slogan||The Province That Knows How|
|Song||"San Francisco (Be Sure to Wear Flowers in Your Hair)"|
|Provincial route marker|
|Part of a series on the provinces, states, areas, and territories of Sierra|
The name "San Francisco" originates from the Spaniards who explored and established settlements around the San Francisco Bay. The first structure built by the Spaniards in the area was Mission San Francisco de Asís. The mission was founded by Francisco Palóu and Junípero Serra in 1776 who christened the mission in honor of St. Francis of Assisi, founder of the Franciscan Order. The province shares its name with a number of other geographical locations including its capital and largest city, San Francisco City, which is frequently referenced interchangeably with the province in conventional speech. In order to distinguish between the province and the city, San Francisco is often referred to as the Province of San Francisco whereas the city is officially referred to as San Francisco City. San Francisco Bay and the San Francisco Bay Area also share the name and refer to geographical places within and in the vicinity of the province proper.
San Francisco's official provincial nickname is "The Golden Gate Province", which is found on most vehicle registration plates, welcome signs, government websites, and tourism advertisements issued or produced by the province. The nickname is a reference to the Golden Gate, the strait that connects the Pacific Ocean to San Francisco Bay, as well as the Golden Gate Bridge, the bridge that spans across the strait, and connects San Francisco Peninsula with the Cape of Marin. Visual representations of the Golden Gate Bridge often accompany the nickname as the bridge has become idiosyncratically associated with the province. The bridge is one of the world's most internationally recognizable symbols of San Francisco and Sierra, and was declared one of the Wonders of the Modern World by the Anglo-American Society of Civil Engineers. Construction for the red suspension bridge started in 1933 before it was completed in 1937.
The nicknames "San Fran", "SF", "The Bay", and "Frisco" have been variously used as shorthand terms for both the province and the city. Among locals in San Francisco and rest of the San Francisco Bay Area, the term, "The City" is often used to refer to San Francisco City itself. "The Province" is a less common term used to distinguish the province from the city, while "The Bay" has been interchangeably been used to refer to the province and the region surrounding the San Francisco Bay itself. On national media, the term "San Francisco Province" is generally used when referring to the province. "Frisco" is a contractual term mostly used by non-natives living outside the San Francisco Bay Area and has been viewed as insulting or annoying among locals.
Other nicknames for the province include "Baghdad by the Bay", "Paris of the West", "The Foggy Province", "The Hippie Province", and "The Bay Province".
The official provincial motto is Spanish: "Oro en Paz, Fierro en Guerra", which means "Gold in Peace, Iron in War".
San Francisco is located on the Pacific Northwest Coast of the Kingdom of Sierra, on the western edge of San Francisco Bay, encompassing two whole peninsulas: San Francisco Peninsula and Cape of Marin, that are separated by the Golden Gate. It includes a number of islands in the Bay and offshore in the Pacific, including Alcatraz Island, Angel Island, Bair Island, Treasure Island, Yerba Buena Island, and the Farallon Islands. San Francisco shares its northern land borders with Plumas and its southern land borders with Santa Clara. To the east of San Francisco lies San Francisco Bay where it shares maritime borders with Tahoe, San Joaquin, and Santa Clara. At 2,410 square miles (5,982 km2), San Francisco is the second smallest province in Sierra in terms of total area, making it larger than Trinidad and Tobago and Brunei but smaller than Cyprus. The highest point in San Francisco is Long Ridge in St. Matthew County at 2,603 feet (793 m), while the lowest point in San Francisco is the sea level.
Topography and terrain
San Francisco comprises two peninsulas, San Francisco Peninsula and the Cape of Marin, both of which separate San Francisco Bay from the Pacific Ocean. The two peninsulas are separated from each other by the Golden Gate, a strait that serves as the only major opening into the San Francisco Bay from the Pacific Ocean. San Francisco includes much of San Francisco Peninsula although the southeastern part of the peninsula forms a part of Western Santa Clara. The majority of the population lives on San Francisco Peninsula, and in both peninsulas, the population lives predominantly on the eastern side of the peninsulas, facing towards San Francisco Bay. Both peninsulas feature similar topographical and ecological features, which includes variation in elevation and terrain. The northern tip of San Francisco Peninsula where San Francisco City is located is particularly hilly and rugged, with much of the city's streets and buildings constructed in a fashion that adapts to the local terrain. The highest peak in San Francisco is Long Ridge, a hill located in the Santa Cruz Mountains, at 2,603 ft (793 m).
San Francisco is located along the boundaries where the Pacific Plate and North American Plate meet resulting in seismic faults including the nationwide San Andreas Fault and the Hayward Fault Zone running through or near the province. The province is located within the Ring of Fire and like much of Sierra, is seismically active. Historically, San Francisco has been affected by large earthquakes which has caused significant human loss and property damages, including the 1906 earthquake in San Francisco City (one of the world's deadliest earthquakes) and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.
San Francisco features a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csb), with moist, mild winters and dry, warm summers. The province's weather is influenced by its location by the Pacific Ocean and the Sierra Current, which brings cool currents into the waters surrounding the province to the west and the east in San Francisco Bay. For much of the province, there is little-to-no seasonal temperature variance year-round due to its close proximity to the ocean. The wet season typically begins in November and lasts until March, and the precipitation that falls within this time frame accounts for over 80% of the province's annual average precipitation levels. During the dry season, San Francisco experiences warm, sunny days and areas close to the Golden Gate may often experience foggy conditions.
The province is home to a myriad of microclimates which develop as a direct result of the variation in topography caused by shifting tectonic plates. Within San Francisco City, there are numerous microclimates as extreme variations in natural and artificial topography allows for stark differences in climatic conditions even between city blocks as these variances influence the movement of wind and fog entering and leaving the city. During the summer, fogs develop over San Francisco as rising, hot air from the neighboring, inland Styxie provinces form a low pressure area that draws wind from the North Pacific High. Fogs are often at their strongest by the Golden Gate and immediate vicinity, while areas further inland from the strait remain largely unaffected and experience clear, sunny conditions.
San Francisco is part of the Nearctic ecozone and includes a number of ecozones. The San Francisco Peninsula is primarily interior chaparral and woodlands while the Cape of Marin consists mainly of Northern Sierra coastal forest and Coast Range forest. San Francisco shares many of its endemic species with the rest of the region and the province has a long history dedicated to protecting and preserving the province's native ecosystem and wildlife. Approximately one-third of San Francisco remains forested or undeveloped, with the majority of these ecologically pristine lands situated on the Cape of Marin.
Flora and fauna
San Francisco supports a diverse community of plants and animals. Although urbanization and human development has disrupted natural ecosystems within the province, the provincial government has contributed millions of dollars towards protecting the province's wildlife. The province's chaparrals support species that are also found throughout the nation while the forested areas in the Cape of Marin include species more commonly found and prevalent in the Pacific Northwest provinces and Rainier.
Common native tree species which inhabit San Francisco include the redwood, Douglas fir, black oak, strawberry trees, and various species of fern. Introduced species which have been successful in San Francisco include the Southern magnolia and the small leaf tristania.
Several dozens of native species of terrestrial and marine animals live in San Francisco or its surrounding waters. The Sierra sea otter (Zalophus sierranus) is the province's official animal and inhabits much of the province's coastline including the harbors of San Francisco City. The North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) inhabits San Francisco's waterways and are much more prevalent in the Cape of Marin than the San Francisco Peninsula.
San Francisco has been inhabited by humans as early as 3000 BC. The earliest Amerindians who settled in San Francisco were known as the Ohlone, a group of people who spoke a Miwok language. The Ohlone occupied an expansive range of land that included San Francisco, western San Joaquin, and northern Santa Clara. The Bay Area included several village settlements which were connected through a trade network that extended as far east as Tahoe and as far south as Pacífico Norte. San Francisco was known as Ahwaste, which translates to "place at the bay". By the time the Spanish arrived to San Francisco, other groups such as the Yelamu and the Pomo were also present there.
The earliest known European to have arrived and explored San Francisco was Gaspar de Portolà, a Spaniard soldier who was appointed as governor of Las Californias. De Portolà was also accompanied by Juan Crespí, a Franciscan friar tasked with Christianizing any indigenous natives they encountered. De Portolà, Crespí, and their men set foot in the San Francisco Bay Area in 1769. Their advance through the San Francisco Peninsula was halted when they observed the Golden Gate, the mouth of San Francisco Bay, which they were not able to identify at the time (they had mistook Drakes Bay to be the San Francisco Bay described by English privateer Francis Drake and later, Spanish explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno).
Early Sierran period
San Francisco was admitted into the union on November 28, 1858 and was the second province to be admitted into the Kingdom of Sierra. The province was created by combining the former Californian counties of San Francisco and Marin. While the combination resulted in two disjointed regions separated by sea, representatives from Marin County wanted to be a part of San Francisco rather than join the Dutch-majority Plumas. Marin County was also not populous enough to become a province in its own right, as it had failed to meet the constitutional requirement at the time which declared that a province must have at least 25,000 inhabitants to be admitted (its population was around 4,000 in 1858). The county also shared closer ties with San Francisco due in part to an established ferry line between the two peninsulas which fostered commerce and travel.
At the time of its admission, the provincial capital of San Francisco City had been growing rapidly and the province was urbanizing. While most urban areas and cities leaned in favor of the Royalist Party during the early days of Sierra, but San Francisco leaned in the direction of the Democratic-Republican Party in both the rural communities and urban areas. This was exceptional as the Democratic-Republicans had most of their support based in rural communities during the early years of Sierran history, but the province supported the Dem-Reps due to the region having been in favor of a republican government during the Constitutional Convention during the last years of the California Republic with many pro-republican delegates coming from the future province.
Early 20th century
Racial and ancestral makeup
Art and literature
Taxation and budget
Infrastructure and transportation
Rail and public transit
San Francisco has the second-largest public transit system in Sierra, after the Gold Coast. As of 2018, San Francisco had a public ridership of 370,287,180 rides. It is primarily serviced by the San Francisco Provincial Railway, also known as the Provi, which operates a combination of light rail, subway, large bus, and trolleybus networks. The network consists of 74 bus lines, 25 trolley bus lines, 10 light rail lines, a double subway tube, and 6 cable car lines. It also utilizes the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART), an interprovincial rapid transit system that connects key cities in the five provinces surrounding the San Francisco Bay Area including San Francisco.
The nationwide Royal Pacific Railroad and Sierrail system also operates active lines through San Francisco and connect the province to other regions in Sierra as well as to foreign destinations, including Astoria, Superior, and Brazoria. Royal Pacific's headquarters are located in San Francisco City, and it is the second largest center of the intercity passenger rail network in the country after Porciúncula. Royal Pacific was originally chartered by the Parliament of the Kingdom of Sierra to connect San Francisco City and the coastal region to eastern Sierra, and eventually to the neighboring country of Superior, a tasked that was achieved by the completion of the first transcontinental railroad in 1869.
Government and politics
San Francisco is divided into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. It uses a semi-parliamentary system, meaning its head of government is elected directly by the people and on a separate ballot from the San Francisco Provincial Legislature. Its government, officials, laws, and regulations are directly governed and dictated by the Provincial Constitution of San Francisco. Its eighth most recent major revision was adopted on March 13, 2001.
San Francisco is headed by the Lord Superintendent, a viceregal representative appointed by the Queen to fulfill the sovereign duties of the Queen-in-Right of San Francisco. The Lord Superintendent is responsible for assuming the roles and functions of the Queen when she is not in the province. All laws, letters patent, documents, and executive actions require approval by the Lord Superintendent in their capacity as the Crown's representative, either verbal or written, in order to effect. The Governor is the head of government who serves as the chief executive of the civilian executive branch. They are elected directly by the citizens of San Francisco and oversee the provincial bureaucracy. They are also a member of the San Francisco Provincial Assembly and are generally the leader of the governing party or coalition. Other executive offices include the Lieutenant Governor, the Provincial Secretary of State, the Provincial Attorney General, the Provincial Treasurer, the Provincial Superintendent of Schools, the Provincial Auditor, and the Provincial Commissioner of Labor.
The San Francisco Provincial Assembly is the unicameral legislative body of the province of San Francisco. It has a total of 118 seats within the assembly and is located in the provincial capitol of San Francisco City. Members of the assembly are elected in elections held once every five years serving a term of the same length. Since the 1960s, liberal and left-wing political parties have dominated in the assembly with the Progressive Coalition, a coalition of various leftist political parties in the province, holding a majority of seats since 2010 with the Royalist Party having long since forced into the position as the constant opposition party.
The judiciary in San Francisco is divided into three tiers, with the Supreme Court of San Francisco as the highest court in the province. The Supreme Court predominantly hears appeal cases and has discretionary jurisdiction. It only has original jurisdiction over a constitutionally limited range of cases. The Supreme Court comprises a chief justice and their six associate justices, each of whom are elected in non-partisan elections for eight-year terms. Terms are staggered so every two years, two justices are elected or reelected. The mandatory retirement age for justices is 75. It is constitutionally required to hear any appeal for cases that involve the sentencing of a life sentence without parole or sentences exceeding 55 years.
Due to San Francisco's small geography, it does not have a courts of appeal system like much of its neighboring counterparts. Although the Constitution allows for the creation of lower courts that may have original or appellate jurisdictions, including those functionally similar to provincial-level courts of appeal, none has ever been created. The next highest level of courts are the Superior Courts, three of which correspond to and have jurisdiction over the three counties of San Francisco. The Superior Courts possess exclusive jurisdiction over most civil and criminal cases, and its judges are elected in county elections.
The San Francisco Provincial Police is the primary law enforcement agency of San Francisco. The provincial police is responsible for protecting highways and roads running into the province, inspecting vehicles suspected of hiding illegal substances and/or criminals, and maintain public order and cracking down on crime in the province's towns and cities. The provincial police, abbreviated as the SFPP, has an annual budget of around $20 million a year and has around 88,000 uniformed officers as of 2018. The police remains well funded and is capable of securing all entries and exits into and from the province and maintaining security from remote towns to major cities. The leader of the SFPP is the Chief of the Provincial Police who is stationed in San Francisco City proper and the SFPP will cooperate with local police departments if need be, mainly during manhunts and other emergency operations.
The San Francisco Provincial Guard is the main component of the San Francisco Military Department, and can be activated in the event of emergencies by the Governor of San Francisco. It includes the Sierran Royal Army Provincial Guard and Sierran Royal Air Force Provincial Guard. As a coastal province it also has a naval component, the Sierran Royal Navy Militia, which is part of the Provincial Guard.
Aside from provincial guard forces, the federal military also has a presence in the province. The Presidio, The Military College of San Francisco, is the officer commissioning school of the Army and is located there. The Sierran Royal Coast Guard's 5th District is headquartered in San Francisco City.
Counties, cities, and towns
San Francisco has a total of 3 counties: the fewest counties out of any Sierran PSA. The county boundaries are based on former county lines established by the former California Republic. The three counties of San Francisco are: Marin County, San Francisco City-County, and St. Matthew County. Each of the counties are headed by an elected Board of Supervisors and the counties are further divided into districts, each represented by a member of the county board.
Counties in San Francisco function similarly to most other Sierran PSAs. San Francisco's counties possess home rule powers and responsibilities, such as providing public transportation, law enforcement, public education, public healthcare, waste disposal, fire management, emergency medical services, tax collection, voter registration, driver's registration, road maintenance, animal control, jails, libraries, community centers, and post offices. The power to create, merge, or dissolve counties rests solely under the discretion of the San Francisco Provincial Legislature. The legislature reserves the right to enact restrictions or limitations on the powers of counties, municipalities, and other localities.
In addition to counties, San Francisco Provincial Constitution allows for the creation of special districts, which are given limited jurisdiction over a single issue such as school districts (for education) or water districts (for water utility services). Each special district is run by its own board and its members are elected directly by the district's constituents.
Under San Francisco laws, all incorporated communities of San Francisco are classified as municipalities, which is coterminous with cities. The province does not have townships or civil townships. Any unincorporated community in San Francisco, including census-designated places, is administered directly by the county.
Political party strength and ideologies
Since the 1960s, San Francisco has become the most liberal and left-wing province in the entire kingdom with the province's politics and culture dominated by liberal and left-wing views and influence. Around 70% of all eligible voters are registered members of the Democratic-Republican Party while another 8% are registered Social Democrats and Greens with Royalists making up only 3% of registered voters. The San Francisco Democratic-Republican Party has been described as the most progressive provincial chapter of the party due to its endorsement of progressive left-wing social and economic policies along with its cooperation with the San Francisco Social Democrats and Green Party. Much of this has been due to the efforts of Terry Scott since becoming governor in 2010 and leader of the San Fran Democratic-Republicans by extension and has had the provincial chapter adopt his social democratic and anti-establishment ideology. Prior to 2014, the San Francisco Royalist Party was a moderately conservative political party prior to Benjamin Grant's election that year. Since becoming party leader, Grant has had the Royalists adopt a right-wing populist, one-nation conservative platform and a call to reverse the gains made by the progressive government and the implementation of right-wing policies related to the size of the provincial government and healthcare.
The Democratic-Republics and the Social Democrats are primarily centered in the provincial capital of San Francisco City and all major communities on the coastlines and close to the San Francisco Bay proper. The Green Party also has similar levels of support within said areas and has been growing in recent years due to rising concerns over climate change. All major urban areas generally fall under the influence of all member parties of the Progressive Coalition along with many small cities and large towns. The Royalists are primarily centered around small towns, some large cities and the few rural communities in San Francisco proper. The Libertarians and Christian Democratic Association are also centered around said areas as well. The Christian Democrats are notable to appealing to the Tondolese minority and many Vietnamese-Sierrans and have small enclaves in coastal communities in areas that are largely controlled by the Progressives.
Federal and CAS representation
San Francisco's delegation to the House of Commons numbers at around 10 Commoners and is made up of politicians from the Progressive Coalition. Three Commoners are Democratic-Republicans, another three are Green Party members and the remaining four are Social Democrats. The most famous and well known of San Francisco's House delegation is Susan Kwon of the 2nd District who's also the current leader of the Social Democratic Party. San Francisco is represented by three officials in the Senate with the current delegation being Ellen Chao and Azita Delrahim of the Democratic-Republican Party and Victor Olague of the Social Democrats. Due to the left-leaning nature of the province, San Francisco's parliamentary delegations have been universally in support of progressive policies and haven't had a Royalist delegate since 2018 when Tim Allen lost to the Social Democrats.
San Francisco is represented in the American Parliament of the Conference of American States and is organized as a single parliamentary constituency. The province is part of the San Francisco constituency which contains the same borders as the province itself and is next to the Central Pacific Sierra constituency encompassing Western Santa Clara and Western Central Valley. The province is represented by MAPs Akash Gupta and Jeremiah Falwell as of 2017 with both being affiliated with the Liberal Democrats of America.
Education is overseen by the San Francisco Provincial Board of Education, which is headed by the Provincial Superintendent. All laws pertaining to education are codified in Section 281 in the San Francisco Civil Code, while constitutional guarantees and rights including the right to an affordable education are found in Articles XXXIII of the San Francisco Provincial Constitution. Regulations, education standards, and guidelines constitute San Francisco's Comprehensive Education Plan (CEP), and students, teachers, and schools are evaluated annually by the nationally administered Cumulative Academic Test (CAT), which is localized as the Academic Performance and Aptitude Test (APAT).
San Francisco has outlawed homeschooling since 2015, although certain exceptions (restricted to health or safety reasons) have allowed the practice to continue. All students between the ages of 5 and 17 are required by law to attend public or private school. Community college is free for all students, regardless of residency status in San Francisco, making the province one of the only 4 provinces which provide this service.
Primary and secondary education
Colleges and universities
|Insignia||Symbol||Binomial nomenclature||Year Adopted|
|Official provincial amphibian||Pacific tree frog||Pseudacris regilla||1990|
|Official provincial bird||Cedar waxwing||Bombycilla cedrorum||1964|
|Official provincial butterfly||West Coast lady||Vanessa annabella||1970|
|Official provincial dessert||Popsicle||–||1950|
|Official provincial fish||Brown bullhead||Ameiurus nebulosus||1956|
|Official provincial flower||Baby blue-eyes||Nemophila menziesii||1956|
|Official provincial insect||California carpenter bee||Xylocopa sierrana||1956|
|Official provincial mammal||Sea otter||Enhydra lutris||1989|
|Official provincial crustacean||Striped shore crab||Pachygrapsus crassipes||1977|
|Official provincial motto||"Oro en Paz, Fierro en Guerra" (Spanish: Gold in Peace, Fire in War)||–||1858|
|Official provincial slogan||"The Province That Knows How"||–||2004|
|Official provincial nickname||"The Golden Gate Province"||–||1980|
|Official provincial tree||Monterey cypress||Cupressus macrocarpa||1956|
|Official provincial fruit||Lemon||Citrus limon||1990|
|Official provincial song||"San Francisco (Be Sure to Wear Flowers in Your Hair)"||–||1967/1983|
|Official naval ship||HRMS San Francisco||–||2003|
|Pacific Ocean||Plumas||Plumas • Tahoe|
|Pacific Ocean||San Joaquin • Santa Clara|
|Pacific Ocean||Central Valley • Pacific Ocean||Santa Clara|
|Preceded by|| List of K.S. PSAs by date of admission to the Union
Ratified the K.S. Constitution on November 27, 1858 (2nd)