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- This is the article on the constituent country. For the article on the sovereign nation with the same name, see Kingdom of Sierra.
Anthem: For the Love of Our Union
Map of Sierra with its provincial boundaries
and largest city
|Recognised regional languages|
|Ethnic groups |
1% Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander
20% Mixed or other (incl. Hapas and Creoles)
|Sovereign state||Kingdom of Sierra|
|Government||Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy|
|Elizabeth II (I)|
|Susan Kwon (SD)|
|House of Commons|
|June 14, 1846|
|February 2, 1848|
|November 27, 1858|
|June 23, 1950|
|1,225,601 km2 (473,207 sq mi)|
• Water (%)
• 2020 census
|71.21/km2 (184.4/sq mi) (52nd)|
|GDP (PPP)||2020 estimate|
|$7.127 trillion (4th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2020 estimate|
|$7.127 trillion (4th)|
• Per capita
low · 23rd
very high · 4th
|Currency||Sierran dollar ($) (KSD)|
|Time zone||UTC−8 (PST)|
• Summer (DST)
|ISO 3166 code||KS|
|This article contains Han text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Han characters.|
|This article contains Chinese text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.|
|This article contains Japanese text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of kanji and kana.|
|This article contains Korean text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Hangul and Hanja.|
Sierra (Spanish: Sierra, French: Sierra, Han: 塞拉, Chinese: 塞拉, Vietnamese: Dãy Núi, Korean: 공화국, Japanese: シエラ王国, and German: Sierra), also referred to as Federal Sierra or the Sierran mainland, is a country located mostly in the North American West Coast with a population of eighty-seven million. Sierra is a constituent country of the Kingdom of Sierra, and shares this status with two other states (the Deseret and Hawaii). The term "Federal Sierra" is often used to distinguish the constituent part of Sierra from the Kingdom of Sierra. Federal Sierra consists of twenty-three provinces, ten territories, and two crown dependencies. It borders Astoria to the north, the Deseret and Brazoria to the east, Mexico to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Sierra's Yucatán territories shares land borders with Guatemala and Belize, and maritime borders with Cuba. It has a total area of 473,207 square miles (1,225,601 km2) and a population of an estimated 59.6 million (83.4 million as the Kingdom) inhabitants in 2020, making it the most populous member state in the Conference of American States and the 29th most populous country in the world when including the Kingdom as a whole. Sierra's capital and largest metropolis is Porciúncula, while its largest conurbation is the Greater Porciúncula Area. The ten next largest cities in Sierra include, in descending order: San Diego, Phoenix, Riverside, Tijuana, San Jose, San Francisco City, Tucson, Las Vegas, Fresno, and St. Anne.
During the Pre-Columbian era, Sierra was inhabited by several Amerindian tribes including the Chumash, Navajo, Tongva, Mojave, and Maidu. The indigenous peoples of Sierra were highly diverse, who spoke over a dozen different language families (over 100 distinct languages), and lived in various climates ranging from forested mountain slopes to barren desert land. There was also diversity in sociopolitical organization, with many tribes living in hunter-gatherer societies, while a few living in complex, city-based societies such as the Hohokam. Conservative estimates placed around 400,000 inhabitants living in modern-day Sierra at the time the first Europeans made contact starting in the 16th and 17th centuries. Although the Spanish, French, Russian, and Dutch all established a colonial presence in Sierra by the end of the 18th century, Spain emerged as the paramount power through its claims and colonization efforts by the late 18th century. Sierra was an important link for the Spanish galleon trade system between the Spanish New World and East Asia. Sierra was administered as Alta California during the Spanish colonial period revolved around the mission and rancho systems, which encouraged the assimilation of the Amerindians through missionary work and settlement of European colonists through homesteading and ranching.
In 1821, Mexico gained its independence from Spain and obtained control over Alta California. Mexico abolished the Spanish mission system but preserved the Spanish practice of giving large land grants to private citizens. During the Mexican period, California witnessed significant emigration from Anglo-America and United Kingdom which caused tensions between the Mexican government and English-speaking settlers. In addition, the local Californios grew increasingly dissatisfied with the Mexican government over differences in policy and feelings towards administrative efficiency over the region. In 1846, the Mexican-American War broke out and the California Republic was declared. California gained its independence in 1848 following the end of the war and the ratification of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, and doubled California's territory to include the Baja California Peninsula and Sonora. Its independence was secured through the backing of Brazoria, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The population of California grew to nearly half a million within the span of five years after independence due to the California Gold Rush which attracted settlers from the Americas, Europe, and East Asia. The Republic lasted for ten years, before it adopted a new constitution and instituted a monarchy, reorganizing as the Kingdom of Sierra, with Charles I as its first king.
During the late 19th century, the Kingdom underwent a period of fast economic development and political turmoil. The early government undertook a rigorous campaign of centralization that tackled on crime, lawlessness, war debt, and lack of a professional, standing army. As Sierra's economic and trading power grew through continued population growth and development of railroad and telegram networks, the country cemented its power as a nation-state through its pivotal involvement in the War of Contingency. Sierra joined forces with its neighbor Brazoria in preventing the United Commonwealth from retaking the Anglo-American breakaway states that formed in the aftermath of the American Civil War. Meanwhile, the debate between monarchism and republicanism eventually led to a full-scale civil war that divided the nation into the Republican North (led by Sen. Isaiah Landon's self-declared Second California Republic) and the Monarchist South for nearly four years between 1874 and 1877. The monarchy prevailed against the Second California Republic and the devastation of the North in the war resulted in long-lasting effects known as Southernization, wherein the center of power and influence shifted from San Francisco City to Porciúncula. In the following decades, Sierra underwent rapid industrialization and expanded its military. It became an imperialist power when it annexed Hawaii in 1896 and Tondo in 1901 through military conquest.
Under the reign of Louis I, Sierra permanently transformed from a predominantly White Anglo-American state into a multiracial society through the Sierran Cultural Revolution. Advancements in civil and political rights expanded universal suffrage to Asian, black, Hispanic, and Creole citizens, and increased interest in syncretizing the cultures of the two largest racial groups: white and Asian, created the "New Culture", a pan-Eurasian-based movement that combined Protestant and Confucian–Taoist values into a single monoculture. The Revolution coincided with increased powers of the monarchy as well as the formation and maturation of a homogenized, cohesive national culture and identity. Towards the end of Louis I's reign, Sierra moved increasingly towards authoritarian rule as civil rights were restricted and the role of the military was elevated in national politics. The country became frequently involved as an intervener in Anglo-American and Latin American affairs. It played a prominent role in the Mexican Revolution and engaged in a number of proxy wars against its main rival, the United Commonwealth.
During Great War I, Sierra sided with the Entente Impériale and led a coalition of Anglo-American states against Japan in the Pacific War, as well as the United Commonwealth and its allies on the North American Front. Although the conflict ended in a stalemate, Sierra emerged as a great power. Sierra fought in Great War II as an Allied power, cementing its status as one of the world's leading powers. Following the war, it underwent liberalization and developed the world's fourth-largest economy.
Sierra is a federal monarchy and a representative democracy. Although Sierra is a constituent country within the sovereign state of the Kingdom of Sierra, it accounts for over 90% of the country's population and dominates the national politics and power structure. It is a member of the League of Nations and is a permanent member on the League of Nations Security Council. It also houses the primary headquarters of the League of Nations at its capital in Porciúncula. In addition, Sierra is a member of various other international political organizations including the Conference of American States, NATO, G8, OCED, Organization of American States, TPAC, WTO, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and more. Its $7.1 trillion economy, based on nominal GDP, represents the fourth largest economy in the world. It is a highly developed country with the fourth-largest economy nominally and the fourth largest economy by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fifth in the world. It is the third largest importer and exporter in the world. It has the fourth highest nominal GDP per capita and ranks very high on the Human Development Index. Its industries in Hollywood and Silicon Valley has made Sierra a global influencer on the economy, politics, entertainment, culture, finance, technology, science, fashion, medicine, and sports. Its services-oriented economy is driven by Sierra's involvement in international finance. The Sierran dollar is one of the world's most widely used currencies, and is used as one of the main reserve currencies.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 2.1 Prehistory
- 2.2 European exploration and settlement
- 2.3 Spanish period
- 2.4 Mexican period
- 2.5 Mexican-American War
- 2.6 Post-independence
- 2.7 20th century
- 2.8 21st century
- 3 Geography, climate, and environment
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Government and politics
- 6 Economy of Sierra
- 7 Infrastructure
- 8 Science and technology
- 9 Education
- 10 Health
- 11 Culture
- 11.1 Customs
- 11.2 Marriage, funeral, and other traditions
- 11.3 Mass media
- 11.4 Cinema
- 11.5 Music
- 11.6 Literature
- 11.7 Philosophy
- 11.8 Art
- 11.9 Cuisine
- 11.10 Sports
- 11.11 Public holidays and celebrations
- 12 Symbols
- 13 See also
|“||I was pleased knowing I took part in naming our beloved nation Sierra. It is a refreshing stand against the external forces that are obsessed with taking what is ours. It pleases our Spanish-speaking brothers whom understand it to mean "a range of mountain" [sic]. At the same time, even to the English-speaking people, the name evokes a sense of passion and romanticism—some manner of pride and sentiments for a rising kingdom. Perhaps all the world soon will admire and marvel at Sierra in all her majesty...the very utterance of her name will shake even the mountains that christened her.||”|
|— Charles I (as Smith C. Miller), Papers to the Union, December 8, 1858|
The name Sierra is derived from the country's longest and most prominent mountain range, the Sierra Nevada, which runs in a northwest–southeast direction from Central Valley in eastern Plumas to the southwestern end of the Great Basin in northeastern Kings. The name Sierra Nevada means "snowy mountain range" in Spanish. The literal translation is "snowy mountains", from sierra; "a range of hills" from the 16th century Spanish understanding of sierra; and "jagged mountain range", lit. "saw", from Latin serra ("a saw"). The mountains' name is traditionally credited to Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, a Spanish–Portuguese navigator, although Cabrillo used the term to refer to the Santa Cruz Mountains, a mountain range that is a part of the Pacific Coast Ranges, not the Sierra Nevada. The modern day Sierra Nevada received its name by Franciscan missionary Pedro Font in a map he produced in 1776, who applied the name to the range.
The original name of Sierra was California, a name which is used anachronistically when referencing the geographic region of Sierra that lies to the west of the Sierra Nevada and the Colorado River. The name Sierra was formally selected and codified in the 1858 Constitution which reorganized Sierra's predecessor, the California Republic, from a presidential republic to a Westminster-styled constitutional monarchy. The decision to rename the country was raised during the 1858 California Constitutional Convention by Will Abramson, who objected to the continued use of a name linked to "Spanish colonialism". Supporters for a rename argued the term California was a name used by larger powers (Mexico, the United States, etc.) that sought to restrict the power or exert influence over the nation. Convention president Smith C. Miller, who would later be crowned King Charles I, reasoned changes in the constitution and government necessitated a name change to accompany the creation of a new country. Other names proposed included Columbia and Pacifica, although the former was deemed too "American" while the latter remained a viable alternative to Sierra for two months at the convention. Sierra was voted on by 128–46 on November 11, 1857, during the final stages of the Constitutional Convention, and legitimized as the official name in the constitutional preamble.
Before the adoption of the 1950 Charter, the official name of Sierra was the Kingdom of Sierra. Since then, the Kingdom officially refers to the sovereign country that includes Sierra, the Deseret, and Hawaii. The terms Sierra and Kingdom of Sierra are often used to interchangeably in informal and colloquial situations. Other common names used to distinguish Sierra from the Kingdom of Sierra include Federal Sierra and the Sierran mainland. The former term is a reference to the federalist system utilized by the Sierran government under the Constitution, while the latter is a reference to Sierra's greatest share in land area in the Kingdom as a constituent country and its insular location in comparison to its overseas territories.
The indigenous peoples of Sierra include the Cahuilla, Chumash, Kumeyaay, Maidu, Mojave, Miwok, Modoc, Navajo, Tongva, Washoe, and Yana. Pre-Colombian Sierra had one of the America's most linguistically and culturally diverse populations. Over a hundred languages from several dozen language families were represented in Pre-Colombian Sierra. Most of the languages spoken during Sierra's prehistory have since gone extinct or are currently endangered. The term "Amerindian" is a term of art used officially to refer to the indigenous peoples of Sierra and the Americas.
It is generally hypothesized by historians that the original inhabitants of Sierra originated from Siberia and other parts of Asia by way through the Bering land strait approximately 16,500 years ago. The bridge formed as a result of falling sea levels were the result of climatic changes during the Quaternary glaciation. The early Paleoamericans spread throughout the Americas, forming a diverse plethora of cultures, civilizations, and tribes, including the more than hundred represented in Sierra. The earliest archaeological evidence showing signs of human habitation in Sierra are the remains of the Arlington Springs Man on Santa Rosa Island in the Channel Islands. The remains date back to approximately 13,000 years ago during the most recent ice age, the Wisconsin glaciation.
Pre-contact population estimates range between 130,000 and 1.52 million inhabitants, although most conservative estimates posit that the population stood around 300,000 at the time Europeans first began exploration in Sierra. Prominent Paleo-Indian groups arose during the Archaic Period including those of Picosa tradition. The Ancient Puebloans (the Anasazi) were one such ancient group that originated from the Picosa tradition, and covered a territory that included present-day Apache, Flagstaff, the southern Deseret, and the Coloradan region. Other major ancient Indian civilization that rose to prominence were the Hohokam and Mogollon of present-day Cornerstone, Flagstaff, Maricopa, Sonora, and Pacífico Norte. These groups were noted for their extensive irrigation systems which sustained large agricultural projects, elaborate pottery, and distinct architecture. Such ancient civilizations disappeared within the past two millennia due to various, hypothesized factors including long-term droughts and famines.
With a number of exceptions, most Sierran natives generally lived as hunter-gatherers who resided across a variety of different environments, climates, and geography. Those further in the north along the coast and mountainous areas practiced forest gardening and even started controlled fires (using fire-stick farming methods) in the woodlands to sustain their agricultural habits. Some tribal groups such as the Chumash had larger, more sophisticated political organization including chiefdoms that encompassed large stretches of land. Trade, diplomacy, intermarriages, and military alliances were common forms of intertribal interactions. The indigenous peoples demonstrated a variety of skills and knowledge that made use of the resources of the land. The deliberate burning of the land prevented larger, catastrophic fires from occurring and revitalized plant growth that attracted consumable animals. Natives along the coast utilized boats for transport and had diets centered around fishing.
European exploration and settlement
European knowledge of Sierra prior to the region's exploration was heavily speculative, and interest was initially piqued by fantastical accounts depicted in the 16th-century Spanish romance novel Las Sergas de Esplandián (The Adventures of Esplandián) by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The novel was a well-received commercial success in Spain and also achieved popularity throughout the rest of the Europe. The novel is set on the mythical island of California where black Amazon warriors led by Queen Califia and griffins inhabit the island. The Amazonians control a large cache of gold and pearls, and are heavily armed. Queen Califia fights alongside Muslims in the story and her name may have been chosen to sound like caliph, suggesting California may have been conceptualized as a caliphate. Various editions were produced, with the earliest known version published in 1510. Such content fueled European imaginations of the uncharted areas of the Americas including those in search of gold deposits and the fabled fountain of youth.
When the Spanish began exploring the Americas and reached the Baja California peninsula, which was rumored to be ruled by Amazonians, the Spanish named it California, erroneously believing the peninsula was an island, as the one described in Las Sergas de Esplandián. Although the exploration of the west coast of Mexico by Francisco de Ulloa that conclusively proved that Baja California was a peninsula, the belief that the peninsula was an island persisted in Europe, as evidenced through contemporaneous maps until the late 18th century. Mapmakers used the name "California" to refer to all the unexplored lands of the western North American coast during the 16th and 17th centuries.
In 1542, Spanish–Portuguese navigator Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo (Portuguese: João Rodrigues Cabrilho) became the first European known to explore the Sierran mainland, reaching as far north as the mouth of the Russian River near Point Reyes on the coast of modern-day Central Valley. His expedition was commissioned and supported by New Spain's viceroy, Antonio de Mendoza. Cabrillo was unable to complete his trip and died at Santa Catalina Island of the Channels after developing gangrene from an injury wound on his shin. Cabrillo's successor, Bartolemé Ferrer, was able to continue the expedition and traveled as far north as Cape Orford in southern Astoria, becoming the first European to explore the southwestern coast of Astoria. In 1553, Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés explored El Norte's Sonora and discovered the Baja California Peninsula during his final major expedition in the region. The Sea of Cortés was named in Cortés' honor by fellow Spaniard explorer Francisco de Ulloa. Cortés believed the peninsula was an island and named it "Santa Cruz Island".
In 1579, some 37 years after Cabrillo's expedition, English privateer Francis Drake traveled up the Sierran coast and claimed an indeterminate region there in the name of England and named the area "Nova Albion" (New England). The location Drake landed on was deliberately kept a secret by he and his men as Drake. He wanted to establish an English colony in the area and wanted to avoid detection by the Spanish. Drake was infamous amongst the Spanish and was known as El Draque by them due to his exploits and raids throughout New Spain. His claims went unrecognized as the British government neither formally recognized Drake's claims nor pursued any serious territorial control over Sierra.
In 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno, under the commission of Viceroy Gaspar de Zúñiga, traveled along the coast of Sierra in search of pearls and mapped out the Sierran coastline. Between Drake's and Vizcaíno's expedition, there were numerous occasions where Spanish galleons traveling to or from Manila (Tondo) inadvertently landed on Sierran coastline for refuge and rest, beginning in 1565. According to Vizcaíno's accounts, he traveled as far north as Monterey Bay. During his expedition, he gave San Diego Bay, the King Louis Islands, Point Conception, the Santa Lucia Mountains, Point Lobos, Carmel River, and Monterey Bay their namesakes. Vizcaíno was also the first person known to document the ecological features of Sierra's coasts. Martín de Aguilar, a commander of one of Vizcaíno's ships, the Tres Reyes, got separated from the rest of the fleet and traveled further north, exploring the coastlines of Plumas and Shasta, and reaching as far north as southern Astoria (Oregon) by Coos Bay.
In 1644, Dutch explorer Hendrik Brouwer, on his way from Chile and towards Japan on a diplomatic mission, made an expedition to Sierra that was organized by the Dutch East Indies Company (VOC) and Dutch West Indies Company. The Dutch desired a base along the North American Pacific Coast to trade gold and resupply ships returning from Asia, similar to the one attempted in Valdivia, Chile. Since the Dutch Republic and Spain were at war at the time, Brouwer wanted to establish a colony in the northern reaches of Alta California with the plan to eventually displace or disrupt Spanish presence there should conditions turned favorable on the side of the Dutch.
Evading detection by the Spanish, Brouwer established New Holland, a Dutch colony at the mouth of Noyo River (present-day Fort Brouwer, Plumas). Brouwer established friendly relations with the indigenous Yuki and Pomo, and left behind 20 men who founded the town of Brouwershaven in Brouwer's honor. The colony survived through intermarriages between the Dutchmen and indigenous women, and a crucial wave of emigrants expelled from the former Dutch Brazil in 1656. Although its existence was eventually discovered by the Spanish in 1769, New Holland remained under de facto Dutch control for nearly 140 years before the Netherlands capitulated to the Batavian Republic, and the French elected to formally cede New Holland to Spain through the Treaty of The Hague. The Spanish left the New Holland settlers alone despite the change, and the colony would not face interference until 1821 when the newly independent Mexican government asserted its authority over the region when it inherited New Spain's territory in Western North America.
French admiral and explorer Louise Antoine de Bougainville toured the Spanish colonies of Alta California with his two ships (Boudeuse and Étoile) during a circumnavigational trip across the Pacific by commission of King Louis XV. Bougainville and his crew arrived from a trip to Tahiti and were warmly received by Spanish authorities at San Diego Bay. The admiral was impressed with the natural geography and landscape of Sierra and received permission by the local Spanish officials to allow 30 of his men to settle on Santa Catalina Island (Île Saint-Catherine) as a colony. With France and Spain on good terms, the French settlement on the Channels would become the French-Spanish Condominium, a joint colonial venture wherein the French were allowed to settle on Spanish territory.
In 1768, Jean-François de Galaup, a naval officer who was a part of Bougainville's expedition, returned to the Channel Islands with over a hundred French colonists including les filles du roi. Today, the majority of the Channeliers of French descent trace their heritage back to the people from the settlers who arrived from either Bougainville or Galaup's ships. The colony survived despite facing initial difficulties in portable water, resources, and a fire when the widely reported apparition of the Blessed Virgin Mary occurred in the Santa Barbara Channel between the Channels and Grands Ballons in 1768. The event revitalized Spanish interest in developing Alta California and supporting the Frenchmen's endeavors in the Channels as the Spanish increased settlement, trade, and construction in the region soon thereafter.
Following Vizcaíno's exploration and the establishment of the French-Spanish Condominium, Spanish activity and development in Alta California was stalled as Spain was preoccupied with European affairs. The Baja California Peninsula received significant attention however, as missions were established by Jesuit missionaries. The Jesuits received financial support from Viceroy Duque de Linares, who also successfully lobbied to the Spanish Crown of increased trade between Asia, Acapulco, and Lima. The peninsula became an important link in the transoceanic trade and was a region of prime interest for the Spanish Crown.
The report of the Virgin Mary in the form of Our Lady of Catalina in the Santa Barbara Channel rekindled Spanish interest in Alta California. The incident was widely reported among Spaniard soldiers, priests, and Channelier colonists, and accounts of the apparition captured the imagination and intrigue of Europeans and New World colonists alike. The end of the Seven Years' War allowed Spain to rededicate its attention towards its colonies in the Americas. In addition, the advances of the English and the Russians in the region prompted action from the Spanish. The failure of the Spanish to detect or realize the presence of the Dutch in the northernmost fringes of Alta California however, prevented a more urgent and stronger campaign to colonizing Sierra.
In 1767, following King Carlos III of Spain's decision to expel the Jesuits from the kingdom, New Spanish authorities were ordered to dispossess Jesuit power in the Californias. In 1769, newly appointed Governor of Alta California Gaspar de Portolá was sent to execute the order to remove the Jesuits and was tasked to explore Alta California. Portolà was accompanied by Franciscan monks Juan Crespí and Saint Junípero Serra y Ferrer, O.F.M., who were tasked with replacing the Jesuits and to extend the mission system that was successful in Baja California to Alta California.
Serra's first mission, Mission San Diego de Alcalá, was founded in 1769, was the first mission built in northern New Spain outside of New Mexico and Tejas (Brazoria). The first presidio in Alta California was also established in San Diego, and would serve as a military garrison for Spanish soldiers in the area. Serra, Portolà, and their men continued their exploration of Alta California northward, exploring the Porciúncula Basin and the Santa Barbara Mountains. The group received support from an envoy of Channeliers who happened to fish off the coast of modern day Grands Ballons. The Channeliers' claims of the Marian apparition years before persuaded Serra to found a mission in the region, Mission San Gabriel Arcángel. As they continued their travels northward, Serra founded another mission, Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo, near Carmel-by-the-Sea, Kings. A total of 21 missions, including Serra's, would be established by the Franciscans between 1769 and 1833, which extended from San Diego to Sonoma. The El Camino Real (Spanish: The Royal Road) became an important route that connected all 21 missions together.
The purpose of the missions was to Christianize and assimilate the indigenous people into European society. The missions were also constructed to affirm Spanish presence over its claims in California. The Spaniards were fearful of British intrusion in the region, and planned to gradually populate the area with Spaniards and mestizos who would keep Anglophones out of the area. Amerindians were forced to live near the mission in settlements known as reductions (reducciones). Over 140 Spanish Friars Minor were employed by the Spanish state to man the missions between 1769 and 1845. Amerindians were brought to the mission either by military force or economic incentive, as the missions were often the centers of trade, agriculture, and crafts. Baptized Amerindians were referred to as neophytes (new believers). Each settlement housed at least two friars together, and were allotted a corporal and his group of five or six soldiers who maintained order in the mission. Reinforcements and auxiliary support could be acquired from the several hundred soldiers distributed across Alta California's five presidios in San Diego, Santa Barbara, Monterey, San Francisco City, and Sonoma. The Amerindians were subjugated under a racial-based hierarchy where they were exploited as uncompensated laborers, while mixed-race mestizos and European Whites had access to higher positions in the local society. There was also a small community of emigrants from North America, including Anglo-Saxon Americans and African Americans, the latter of whom became the progenitors of the modern-day Sierran French Creoles.
The Spanish colonial society operated under a racial hierarchy known as the casta system which was predicated on the concept of limpieza de sangre (cleanliness of blood). The system dictated the relationships and interactions between racial categories, as well as the rights and opportunities members from each group could expect. European-born Spaniards, known as peninsulares were at the top of the hierarchy, followed by full-blooded Spaniards born in the New World. Mixed-race mestizos, primarily those of mixed European and Amerindian heritage, constituted a growing majority of people living in Alta California, and served as a racial wedge between the white elites and the people of color below. At the bottom of the hierarchy were Amerindians and Africans. This race-based system remained a central component of the region's culture well after the end of Spanish administration, influencing racial relations in early Sierran history.
In 1809, France betrayed its alliance with Spain during the Peninsular War, which compromised Spanish dominance over its territories in the Americas, including Alta California. For nearly a decade and a half, Alta California and the Channel Islands operated under tenuous supervision of the local colonial government, and received financial support from Anglo-America and other parts of New Spain. In 1819, the Adam–Onís Treaty established the northern boundary of Spain's claims over Alta California at the 42nd parallel, establishing the present-day borders between Sierra and Astoria. The claim reaffirmed Spain's claim over the entirety of Sierra despite the continued presence of the Dutch in New Holland and its diminished power over the region. Spanish control and administrative power over Alta California had waned significantly by then however and by 1821, Mexico gained its independence from Spain, thereby inheriting control over Alta California.
Under Mexican control, Sierra's status remained as a geographically remote and minimally developed region. Californios and other inhabitants enjoyed a significant degree of autonomy due in part to the frequent government changes in Mexico. Alta California played a negligible role in the Mexican War of Independence and remained a territory as opposed to a state in the new regime. Initially, the Mexican government seldom intervened in local affairs although the authorities required that all citizens must be able to speak Spanish and practice the Catholic faith. Mexico did not effectively gain administrative control over Alta California until 1825, by which then, the region was affirmed as a territory under the 1824 Constitution. In order to solidify Alta California under Mexican law and order, the Mexican central government sent appointed governors to serve as the territorial executives. The first governor of Alta California was José Maria de Echeandía whose notable administrative actions included granting emancipation for the Amerindians living in mission lands and issuing land grants to private buyers.
In 1827, the Mexican passed the General Law of Expulsion which declared all persons born in Spain to be illegal immigrants and required them to leave Mexico, including Alta California. The law in Alta California specifically targeted the Franciscan monks assigned to the obsolete Spanish mission system, who were viewed with suspicion by the Mexican state as allies to Mexico's former colonizer Spain, as well as the Catholic Church. Many Spanish-born clergy complied with the orders, most of whom were of advanced age.
Signs of dissatisfaction by wealthy Californios with the Mexican government emerged during the governorship of Manuel Victoria. Opposition to the unpopular governor led to a brief rebellion which resulted in José Maria de Echeandía, the previous governor, to reassume governorship briefly again until 1833 when José Figueroa was appointed governor.
Political tensions persisted throughout the rest of the 1830s as the Mexican central government itself suffered the weight of sustained political instability and regime changes. Between 1833 and 1846, there was a total of 8 turnovers in Alta California's governorship, ending with Pío Pico. Most of the governorships were ended due to civil strife and armed rebellions by outraged citizens. The lack of serious military and logistical support from Mexico enabled the calamitous situation in Alta California to unfold unhindered.
During the 1840s, Alta California experienced an uptick in Anglo-American immigration and settlement. Enticed by the promise of good weather, cheap land, and adventure, tens of thousands of American pioneers and their families moved westward along a number of trails including the Old Spanish Trail in Southern Sierra and the Siskiyou Trail in Northern Sierra. In the decades prior, the majority of emigrants were American or British trappers from present-day Astoria and Canada who traversed into Mexican territory in search of beaver and other fur-bearing animals. In addition, significant numbers of people living in New Holland and the Channel Islands began emigrating to Alta California proper, with the primary factor being economic opportunism.
In 1846, hostilities between the Brazorian–American alliance and Mexico caused conflict to spillover into Alta California. The region was of significant interest for the American government, as well as the British and French governments, each of which had vested interest in acquiring control over the geographically expansive, resources-rich, and Pacific-bound territory. All three governments had offered previous proposals to buying Alta California partially or entirely from the the Mexican government. The Mexican government rejected all of the offers, despite suffering massive debt and insolvency.
Prior to the outbreak of the Mexican–American War, Alta California had a number of small-scale rebellions and revolts against the Mexican government. Californios were becoming increasingly concerned with what they saw an encroachment of their autonomy. The concurrent immigration of Anglo-American settlers in Alta California also further destabilized the political efficacy of the Mexican government over Alta California as the majority of English-speaking settlers lived outside of Mexican law. The Channel Islands and New Holland, both regions which enjoyed a significant degree of independence from Mexican interference, were also agitated with increased Mexican presence and efforts to rein in control over their livelihoods through taxation and other administrative actions.
On June 8, 1846, a group of Anglo-American settlers led by William B. Ide launched a rebellion and seized control over Mexican barracks in the city of Sonoma. The rebels carried banners which bore the image of a bear and a red star, known as the Bear Flag. The event, which came to be known as the Bear Flag Revolt, signified the beginning of California's armed and organized fight for independence. Soon afterwards, Sutter's Fort was seized by John C. Frémont. The Mexican government responded by sending troops to suppress the rebel forces in California. News of the rebellion and the war between the North American nations prompted many Anglo-American settlers in California to take up arms. Californios who were sympathetic to the Anglo-Americans' cause also rose up and joined forces. The self-declared California Republic and its army engaged in a series of conflicts throughout Alta California and extended their campaign southward towards the Baja California Peninsula and Sonora. On January 13, 1847, Californian forces and the Californios who supported the Mexican government signed an informal military agreement to end hostilities. The Treaty of Cahuenga ended the conflict in California itself as the Mexican forces gave up provided prisoners of war from both side were released by their captors. By the summer of 1847, the combined forces of the United States, Brazoria, and California overwhelmed Mexican forces and forced the Mexican government to surrender after Mexico City was captured. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo formally concluded the war and included Mexico's recognition of California's independence and sovereignty.
Although California gained independence as a sovereign state, the newly founded Californian government relied heavily on the military and economic support of the United States government. After the war, the Californian government incurred large sums of debt after it borrowed extensively from both the United States and Brazoria. In addition, it owed Mexico over $10 million in the form of a "grievance tribute" as stipulated by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. While Californian officials insisted that it remain independent, the United States government actively offered admission into the country as a U.S. state. The Californian government worried about the possibility of the American military taking over the newborn state by force if the Californian government defaulted on its debt. A number of Anglo-American citizens also conspired to declare allegiance to the United States. The Californian government lacked a standing army. Its only source of domestic defense were the militiamen who had assembled together loosely during the war. With the war over, most militias either disbanded or maintained their own quasi-legal existence. Lawlessness and corruption was rampant as lawmakers in Monterey (the first capital of California) struggled to draft a full-fledged constitution. These concerns were the central issue of the California Republic's brief, decade-long existence.
The young nation's independence continued to attract the attention and interest of immigrants due to its fertile land and economic opportunities. A diaspora of Scots and Irish émigrés arrived to California in search of resettlement. They were initially evicted from the United Kingdom due to the Highland Clearances and had settled along the Atlantic coast of the United States. A large number of these immigrants were supporters of Jacobitism and rallied around Charles Miller, a direct descendant of the deposed British Stuart king James II. Miller's family had amassed a fortune in the tanning and shipbuilding industry in the U.S. state of New Jersey and garnered novel attention by Jacobite supporters and third-party observers due to their familial and historical connections with the exiled British royal house. Miller embarked on a journey westward to California and hundreds of Jacobite families followed suit due to their loyalty and devotion to the Stuart bloodline.
Gold Rush of 1849
On January 24, 1848, gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in present-day Coloma, Tahoe. News of the gold reached throughout California, Astoria (then known as Oregon Country), Mexico, Hawaii (then known as the Sandwich Islands), Peru, and Chile first. The California Gold Rush brought over 300,000 people to California from the rest of North America and beyond. The sudden influx of gold saved the Californian economy, allowing it to pay off its war debt, and provide much-needed funding for infrastructure, government services, and law enforcement. Over 300,000 people arrived within five years of the gold rush, overwhelming the country's limited resources and government. Lawlessness was rampant and prospectors or agronauts lacked protections from effectively non-existent property right laws. The majority of boomtowns and population growth occurred in Northern California, and San Francisco City became the most populous city in California.
The gold rush transformed California from a backwater country into a bustling nation. Over tens of billions of dollars worth of gold were recovered, although wealth was concentrated among a select few, most of whom would later become Sierra's first noble and aristocratic families. The majority of those who came in search of gold earned little if any increase in their fortunes.
Constitution of 1858
The population boom and unprecedented economic boom in California placed a significant strain on the government's resources, energy, and capabilities. The Californian government was unable to meet basic demands for law enforcement and funding public projects such as infrastructure. Elected officials at every level of government were accused of cronyism and corruption that were more invested in self-gain rather than public service. The Californian government had witnessed more than six presidencies over the course of ten years, with each president ending their terms out of resignation or electoral defeat. Among the international community, California was perceived as a lawless society which was unable to contain rampant vigilantism, corruption, and social unrest brought forth by the Gold Rush. Rumors that either the United States or Canada would invade California became a common topic of concern.
In 1852, amid race riots and labor shortages, a monarchist movement was organized in San Francisco City as Jacobites and sympathizers with anti-republican tendencies assembled to propose an alternative solution to California's "failed republican experiment". The Jacobites had recognized Charles Miller Stuart as their leader due to his royal blood and his open acquiescence to their fealty. Jacobite publications and newspapers began circulating the concept of a North American-based monarchy in California, which garnered support from Californians of various backgrounds including farmers, storeowners, factory workers, merchants, industrialists, and shipbuilders. The main arguments for monarchism promised stability and unity behind a monarchy which would moderate the populist demands of the public, preserve democracy under a manageable apparatus through a strong constitution, and control political opportunism by establishing a defined peerage system independent of the political system.
Early Kingdom years
The 1858 federal election was Sierra's first national election, held for nearly two weeks following the promulgation of the new constitution. Royalist party member Frederick Bachelor, Sr. became the first prime minister after his party secured 66% of the popular vote and 33 of the 50 seats in the House. Under Bachelor, Sr.'s first government, Sierra focused on expanding international trade and industrialism. The Sierran aristocratic class also developed as the monarchy rewarded titles to wealthy landowners, influential statesmen, entrepreneurs, and friends of the Crown. The Nobility Acts of 1859 formed the basis of Sierra's emergent peerage system, which was similar to the spoils system in other Anglo-American states at the time. The acts legitimized state recognition of lands awarded historically by the Spanish Crown and disproportionately favored Californios and their descendants, as well as Sierran citizens who had owned land under the California Republic or Alta California.
Although the Royalists maintained a comfortable numeric majority in Parliament and dominated San Francisco, Sierra's most populous province at the time, the Democratic-Republicans emerged as a capable, potent opposition party. Highly successful in the inland Styxie provinces, the Democratic-Republicans denounced Bachelor, Sr.'s ministry and expansion of the monarchy. While republicanism was one of the party's central issues, it also supported protectionism and the silver standard. During the 1863 elections, the Royalists maintained a majority in the House but lost four of its seats to the Democratic-Republicans, who achieved a modest seat gain in the House while the Whigs emerged as an early significant minor party with its first two seats.
As Sierra industrialized and the San Francisco Bay Area became more developed, tensions between the Royalist coast and the Democratic-Republican Styxie grew. Issues such as tariffs, immigration, the rise of the aristocratic class, and monarchism dominated the nation's partisan discourse. Under Bachelor, Sr., the Sierran government created numerous publicly owned corporations, including federally incorporated enterprises such as the Royal Postal Service and the Royal Pacific Railroad. A central bank, the Royal Monetary Authority of Sierra (ROMA) was also established in order to regulate Sierra's currency, public credit, and private banking institutions.
During Sierra's infancy, the country also experienced sporadic clashes with the local Amerindian tribes. The Sierran Genocide came to refer to all of the actions taken by the Spanish, Mexican, Californian, and then Sierran governments to decrease the population of the indigenous Amerindian peoples in Sierra. More than 10,000 Amerindians were believed to have been directly killed by Hispanic and Anglo-American settlers, and tens of thousands of more were killed indirectly from disease or poverty. The Sierran Indian Wars were a series of conflicts carried out by the Sierran federal government and provincial governments that occurred mostly in Northern Sierra between 1858 and 1880. The passage of the Compact Indian–Sierran Friendship Act represented the official end to this conflict and resulted in the creation of the modern Sierran Amerindian reservation system.
War of Contingency
In 1861, the United States broke out into a civil war between the anti-slavery Union North and the pro-slavery Confederate South. Although Sierra remained officially neutral throughout the conflict, it continued trade with both the United States and the Confederate States. It did not formally recognize the Confederate States as a sovereign country, but maintained informal contacts with Confederate officials. By 1865, the war was over with a Union victory. Peace was short-lived as several months later, American President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated, triggering a political crisis that derailed into a second Confederate Uprising. The uprising was successfully put down as the South was too weak to resist under the Reconstruction Union-controlled military governments, but other insurrections soon broke out across the rest of the country, leading to Grant's coup and Page's insurrection. These developments resulted in the secession of Northeastern states as the Northeast Union, Midwest states as Superior, and Tournesol. The United States government, on the brink of collapse, was reorganized under the Union of American States, which centralized power and sought to restore control over the newly seceded states, thus beginning the War of Contingency.
Sierra remained neutral on the onset of the conflict and signed the Grant-Trist Agreement with the Unionist government in order to declare nonaggression between the two states. Within a year, Sierran opinion of the war shifted due to concerns that the Unionist government was planning to conquer the entirety of the North American continent, including Sierra, and the presence of Unionist troops along the Brazorian–Sierran borders. Growing calls for interventionism and support for the seceding states were especially strong among Democratic-Republicans. Domestically, mounting unpopularity and resentment of pro-business and pro-industry policies resulted in the Democratic-Republicans under the leadership of Ulysses Perry gaining control over the House during the 1867 elections. Perry and his party's ascent to national leadership was met with fierce backlash by a Royalist-controlled Senate and House opposition, which forced three additional elections within the span of three years, two of which occurred in the same year in 1869 (one in February and the other in August). Parliament, under the premiership of Perry, declared war against the Union of American States, thus bringing Sierra directly into the conflict. This move was supported by populists but strongly opposed by industrialists and Royalists whose business interests were to maintain friendly relations and international commerce with the Union.
The main priorities of Sierra were to protect Sierran interests along its international borders, to maintain control over the Deseret, to prevent Unionist expansionism, and to assume political and military superiority in a post-United States North America. Sierran forces were quickly mobilized to transverse the Sierran East and through Brazoria to support the anti-Union forces. The Atlantic Squadron of the Sierran Royal Navy were also deployed to face off the Union Navy in the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic. Meanwhile, troops were sent north into the former Oregon Country where the Free State of Astoria was declared but was annexed by Canada. The resultant conflict, the Eugene War, was an early, but brief sub-conflict in the war which was a decisive victory for Sierra. Sierra signed a peace agreement with Canada in order to secure and guarantee independence for Astoria, and the assurance Canada would intervene in the War of Contingency on behalf of Sierra and the anti-Union states.
By mid-1868, Sierra and the anti-Union states had reversed much of the Union of American States' initial territorial gains and were making significant headway into Illinois, Kentucky, and Arkansas. Although the Second Confederate States surrendered to the Union, the entry of Canada all and Superior's capture of Michigan dampened the Union's prospects to retake these lands. Worn-out by years of intense warfare and mounting popular discontent, the Union of American States moved towards unconditional surrender. The Christmas Accords were signed on Christmas Day, 1868, which declared cessation of hostilities between the belligerent states, including Sierra. Months later, the war was officially concluded with the signage of the Treaty of Salinas. In the treaty, the Union promised to relinquish its claims over the breakaway states which now composed the Northeast Union, Superior, and Tournesol respectively, unless such states consented to reunification.
First Interwar period
With the war's end, Perry's popularity as the country's first wartime leader was major. National pride and morale ran high but Perry and his party continued to draw ire by the Royalist opposition. During and after the war as prime minister, Perry attempted to restrain the powers and influence of the monarchy, and to rollback aristocratic powers by implementing an estate tax, increasing property tax against property held by nobles and gentry, and banning the creation of new titles of nobility through the Pressings Act. He and his party referred to their reforms as the "Honest Deal" to voters. He helped pass the Royal Edict Limitation Acts, which restricted the use and effectiveness of the king's royal edicts to only enforcing existing statutory or constitutional law, rather than legislating new laws. Perry also transferred the King's power of the purse to the Privy Purse of Sierra, which would fall under the oversight of Parliament.
His attempts of government reform were strongly challenged by the Royalists. The Pressings Act was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in the 1871 Wiesenfield v. Sierra case. He also sought to reduce the powers of the ROMA and lowered tariffs to provide injunctive relief for farmers. He made an unsuccessful bid to adopt the silver standard but unveiled a series of government subsidies and programs to support agricultural business.
Perry's commitment into the war in the East had also harmed business interests. While the war efforts incentivized industry to produce military armaments and supplies for short-term profit, few businesses were directly reached out by Perry's government and many saw the long-term consequences of a fractured, disunited East. There were fears that the war could damage the economy as labor would be drawn away to be conscripted as soldiers. Despite these fears failing to materialize and the success of the war, Sierra's involvement in the War was decried by critics as a "fool's brawl". Conservative resentment and opposition grew, and Perry's animosity towards the monarchy led to strained relations between the Crown and Parliament.
On February 14, 1874, Perry was assassinated by an unknown assailant and his body went missing. Federal investigators initially declared the cause of his death to be suicide, but conspiracy theories proliferated among Sierran republicans that Perry's death was the result of a politically-motivated murder by Royalist sympathizers. More radical republicans believed King Charles I himself ordered Perry's assassination, which sharply worsened the partisan climate of the country.
Sierran Civil War
The death of Ulysses Perry triggered great political and social unrest in the Styxie where the deceased prime minister was regarded as a martyr. Perry's deputy, Issac Johnson, became prime minister and tried to mediate peace between his party and the Royalist opposition. Calls for the abolition of the monarchy and the reinstatement of the Republic grew. The Democratic-Republican Party experienced factionalism between the Moderates who dominated the Senate and House Democratic-Republicans, and the Radicals who consisted of junior House members and populist local officials throughout the Styxie. Among the general populace, the Radicals quickly gained traction among disillusioned Democratic-Republicans in San Joaquin and Santa Clara, where republicanism were the strongest in. San Joaquin Senator Isaiah Landon rose as the most prominent advocate for radical republicanism. A personal friend and confidant of Ulysses Perry, Landon had gained notoriety for his writings on republicanism, as well as introducing Marxism to Anglo-American audiences. As the Johnson government continued to ignore the Radicals' demands for change, Landon led a rebellion in Bernheim, the capital of San Joaquin, thus starting the beginning of the Sierran Civil War.
Landon's insurrection resulted in the creation of the self-declared Second California Republic, with Reno, San Joaquin, Santa Clara, and Tahoe seceding from the Kingdom. The Republicans made swift gains on the rest of Northern Sierra, forcing the Sierran government to move its base of operations from San Francisco City to Porciúncula in the Southwest Corridor when San Francisco fell to the Republicans in December 1874. San Francisco, Plumas, Shasta, and parts of Central Valley came under Republican occupation by 1875, effectively dividing the country between the rebelling North and Kingdom South.
In 1875, Republican advances were eventually halted in Kings during the Folly at Tejon Pass, a battle which became the decisive turning point in the war. The Republican forces suffered major losses and pushback by the defending Monarchists. In the following months, the Monarchist forces recovered land lost in Central Sierra and began two campaigns to restore sovereign control over the rebelling Styxie. By 1877, Landon and the Republicans had resorted to scorched earth and other controversial tactics to hinder the Monarchists' attempts to regain control. Landon eventually surrendered and capitulated in mid-November of 1877. With the war effectively ended following Landon's surrender, Landon and other Republican leaders were arrested and tried for treason, sedition, and war crimes. Although Landon was initially sentenced to death by hanging, his sentence was commuted by King Charles I and was given a life sentence of house arrest instead. Major changes and reforms were implemented following the war, mainly to reintegrate the Styxie back into the Kingdom, and to control the influence of radical republicanism. The Democratic-Republican Party expelled officeholders who held radical republican tendencies and changed its platform from "hard republicanism" to "principled republicanism" that connoted cooperation and dialogue with the monarchy and its supporters.
Gilded Age and Sierran imperialism
Following the war, Sierra experienced rapid economic recovery and revitalization in the Styxie. With the capital moved to Porciúncula, the city and the surrounding Southwest Corridor became the new political, economic, and social center. Various boomtowns and communities were developed as vast amounts of former rancho lands were resold back to the government or bought by private investors, developers, and companies. Improvements to transportation, manufacturing, and agriculture fueled the growth of industrializing cities.
By the 1890s, hundreds of miles of railroads were laid down to connect all of the major cities of Sierra with each other, as well as international destinations in Astoria, Brazoria, Superior, and elsewhere. The most significant lines were the Southern Pacific Railroad, Royal Pacific Railroad, Santa Fe Railroad, and Western Pacific Railroad. These lines carried both freight and passengers, which were vital to the country's economic growth and continued transcontinental migration. Electric railroads began to emerge during the last decade of the 19th century, with the largest system being developed and maintained by the Pacific Electric.
The discovery of oil across Sierra between the 1880s and the early 1900s further increased economic and commercial development. While agriculture remained the dominant industry in provinces such as Central Valley, the Inland Empire, and Orange, more and more farmland was converted into oil fields, factories, industrial depots, and housing to accommodate the nationwide explosive growth.
Coinciding with Sierra's industrial revolution was the enlargement of the Sierran military and the refinement of Sierra's foreign and military policies. The Sierran Royal Navy underwent a massive modernization plan which saw its fleet size grow more than quadruple its size during the Sierran Civil War. It experienced significant improvements to seafaring and naval warfare technology, as evidenced by its upgrade to steel-hull warships. Pre-dreadnought battleships were added to the navy's fleets by 1880s and reflected Sierra's Pacific-oriented foreign policy strategy of trade and regional dominance in the Pacific Ocean. During the mid-1880s, Sierra engaged in a series of military conquests and acquisitions of Pacific islands including the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Rapa Nui, the Galápagos Islands. In 1893, Sierra annexed the Hawaiian Islands, which was the largest territorial gain by Sierra at the time since the country's inception. These acquisitions were emblematic of Sierra's goal to becoming an imperialist power, modeled after the imperial great powers of Europe such as Great Britain and France.
The period between the Sierran Civil War and the Sierran Cultural Revolution is commonly referred to as the Gilded Age by historians, so named due to rapid economic growth despite emergent social issues and economic inequality. Although real wages, wealth, and national GDP grew precipitously, political corruption, economic cronyism, and economic stratification plagued the country. "Robber barons" such as Collis P. Huntington and Leland Stanford were wealthy entrepreneurs who accumulated large amounts of wealth from their profitable enterprises and business ventures, often at the expense of Sierran workers. There were few worker's protection laws and labor unions lacked recognition by many provincial and local governments. Child labor was also widespread, especially within factories and mines. Although philanthropy and charitable giving was practiced by the wealthy and middle class to promote public works and social services, the overlooked issues among the working class remained largely neglected throughout this period by the federal government by the Royalists and Democratic-Republicans alike. Populist politicians and parties frequently contested in elections in order to capture the political dissatisfaction of the working class but only witnessed limited success in results. Immigration was another hot-button issue that persisted during the Gilded Age, as the citizenry were divided on immigration, particularly with immigrants from East Asian countries such as China and Japan, increasing the incidence of race-related conflict and growing antipathy among poor whites.
The worsening conditions were further complicated when Sierra had its first major banking panic in 1892 due to many financiers withdrawing their money from Sierran banks in response to the failing economies in Argentina and Brazil. Unemployment rates skyrocketed and prices were hiked, leading to social unrest and political mobilization among lower-class workers and farmers.
Nativist organizations were formed in response to Sierra's uncurbed immigration and financial woes, and were often linked with labor movements and syndicates. Supporters and pro-nativist lawmakers often pushed for anti-immigration laws, but did so to no avail. Prominent nativists, including Irish-Sierran Denis Kearney, threatened violence against business owners who hired Chinese. While anti-immigration measures failed due to resistance by the Royalists (who wanted cheap labor and strong relations with Asia), individual provinces such as those in the Styxie created discriminatory policies that restricted the civil rights of non-whites and passed literacy tests that made voting or even applying for a job much more difficult.
In 1893, King Charles I passed away following a year of severe health complications, making his eldest son, Crown Prince Lewis, the new king as Louis I. Similar to his father, he continued maintaining neutrality in domestic affairs while commanding a more active role in foreign policy. The new king rejected nativism but opted to reconcile with Democratic-Republican workers and cooperate with political reformists. Horrified by the social injustices and economic stagnancy that plagued the nation, he oversaw the introduction of the new labor policies such as the minimum wage and the eight-hour workday, regulated child labor under extreme standards, and the establishment of the imposing an income tax through the Royalist ministry of Prime Minister Joseph Sterling, a "progressive businessman" from Santa Clara. These reforms helped cultivate the rise of the Progressive Era as widespread social activism helped bring radical political reform to the country.
In 1898, Sierra along with several other Anglo-American states, mainly the Northeast Union, Union of American States and Brazoria, had participated in the Spanish–American War against Spain officially to oppose European imperialism in the Americas and to protect the sovereignty of states in the America, though the Sierran government used the war as a pretext to annex Spain's overseas territories and expand its empire even further. During the war, the Sierran Royal Navy made up a significant portion of the Combined American Fleet and fought in the Pacific Campaign where the Sierran Royal Marines and Army fought successfully against the Spanish and by the war's end had captured all of Spain's overseas colonies, including Tondo. During the war, Sierran forces were aided by Tondolese revolutionaries, but a renewed war between the former allies broke out in the form of the Han–Sierran War ending in 1901 with the establishment of the Sierran East Indies and a military occupation of the island to ensure Sierra's holdings in the region.
The excesses and social issues of the Gilded Age resulted in the emergence of Progressivism, a socio-political movement that was based on reform and change. Unrest and civil disobedience became a standard form of resistance and opposition to Gilded Age policies and society. Yellow journalism and the election of reform-minded, populist-oriented officials spurned interest in challenging the elitist culture which had developed in Porciúncula. The Progressive Era reflected a shift in Sierran society where there was an increasing sense of political efficacy that voting and active participation in government and politics could lead to practical, impactful change. Protests, organized strikes, marches, rallies, campaign drives, and petitions became more commonplace during this time. Continued advances in technology, medicine, science, engineering, agriculture, transportation, and electricity also hastened Sierra's trajectory towards a more modern, mobilized society.
In the 1901 federal election, the Democratic-Republicans under Robert Landon, the grandson of Isaiah Landon, became the governing party in the House. The party ran on a platform of Progressivism and civil rights, which included reversing economic inequality, protecting the working class, improving public health and sanitation, breaking up monopolies, extending full suffrage to women and people of color, introducing a federal initiative and referenda system, and regulating business more toughly. The party's policy changes reflected one that sought to bridge an alliance between the working class and the middle class. In 1903, it officially dropped political republicanism from its platform and supported the status quo of maintaining Sierra's constitutional monarchial system.
The Progressive movement also heavily influenced the Royalists as it attempted to moderate its own policies by supporting various reformatory policies which the Democratic-Republicans supported. The Progressive wing promoted a form of one-nation conservatism that believed the government could be used to improve the problems and issues of modern society. Unlike the Democratic-Republicans, the Royalists backed a platform which went further on racial equality and supported more socially conservative issues such as alcohol prohibitionism.
Sierran Cultural Revolution
The Sierran Cultural Revolution was a major period of social, cultural, and political upheaval which fundamentally altered and changed Sierran society. It originated out of the Progressive Era and coalesced into a wide-reaching, expansive movement that witnessed radically shifted views on race, culture, philosophy, politics, religion, and economics. The revolution began in 1901 initially as a grassroots-driven movement which consisted of a pan-racial coalition of mostly white European Sierrans, East Asian Sierrans, Hispanic and Latino Sierrans, black and Creole Sierrans, and mixed race Sierrans who promoted racial equality, civic nationalism, and multiculturalist harmony. The emergence of the Pacific School and its associated New Culture movement, best exemplified by Mark Culler's Comparison of Western and Oriental Thought, sparked a nationwide movement. The book pioneered modern Western methods of Chinese historiography and cultural studies. The book called for harmonization between Western European Protestant culture with East Asian Confucian culture, and spawned an entire intellectual trend of New Confucianists in Sierra. Rigorous and active campaigning for civil rights to Asians, Hispanics, and blacks led to increased social integration and coexistence. Growing acceptance and open adoption of new cultures between all ethnic groups evolved into a national, cohesive culture of similar customs and beliefs that consolidated elements from both Western and Eastern culture. The government, especially under the direction of King Louis I, began actively working and promoting the New Culture and engineered the Revolution to fit its aims and goals. The movement morphed into a top-down revolution that cracked down on Landonism, socialism, and other leftist ideologies in favor of a paternalistic, moralist democracy buttressed by capitalism and one-nation conservatism.
The Revolution was marked with widespread legal reforms, shift in attitudes and customs, increased immigration, and violent conflict with reactionaries. By its end, it saw the abolition of the Sierran casta system and radically altered the landscape of Sierran politics and social views. The Revolution also coincided with the rise of increased militarization, increased involvement of the monarchy, and authoritarianism due to widespread fear of Landonism, trade unionism, nativism, and anarchism. By the mid-1920s, during a time known as the Approbatio, the government resorted to military use and speech laws to control and suppress the activities of the opposition and dissidents. Contemporary historians have claimed that this later period in King Louis I's reign coincided with elements of derzhavism within the Sierran government. Although labor conditions worked, unions suffered greatly during the Revolution, and were subject to intense scrutiny. The change transformed Sierra into a cosmopolitan society and shaped the modern Sierran nation-state and democracy. The late Revolution coincided with unprecedented economic growth and militarization, propelling it towards the global power status it has reached in the present-day.
Although the Revolution was by no means uniform, and was not seen or referred to as a proper revolution until much later, it has been traditionally held that the Revolution began in the year 1901, from which its Sino-Sierran namesake owes its name to. Social change began in response to the effects of the Industrial Revolution and continued immigration of people from Asia and Latin America into Sierra, as well as Sierra's imperialist endeavors in the Pacific. Its colonization of Tondo was instrumental in bridging cultural exchange between the two powers and providing momentum for the Revolution. The rapid modernization and technological advancement of Sierra came at the cost of poor living conditions for the lower and middle classes and widespread corruption among Sierra's corporate elites. Immigration on the other hand, fueled racial tensions between the predominant Sierran whites and non-white immigrants who posed a threat to economic and labor interests. Miscegenation and the liberal exchange of different cultures had also produced a new class of multiracial Sierrans (such as the Sierran Creoles and the Hapas) and a more multiracial culture in the cities respectively. Social progressives and reformists sought to consolidate better conditions and rights to the disaffected commoners and to extend cordiality to new ethnic groups.
In 1909, King Louis I was crowned Emperor of Tondo, officially becoming a king-emperor. The phrase, "Kowtow to the King-Emperor" became a popular saying to refer to Louis I's full embracement as an emperor and an avid supporter of the Revolution. He positioned himself as a reform-minded monarch whose Orientalist sympathies made him a ready ally for prominent Revolution figures including Walter B. Feng and Richard Xiong. Although Louis I's traditional Jacobite supporters were mixed towards the King's acceptance of the New Culture, the Royalist Party sought to align its policies and agenda with the King. As a result, both the Democratic-Republican and Royalist parties officially supported the Revolution by 1911, and both attempted to court and curry favor from Sierra's rising Asian community.
Despite official backing from both major parties and the monarchy, there was widespread reactionary opposition to the changes ushered forth by the Revolution. The early opposition mainly consisted of traditionalists and nativists who sought to preserve ideals of white supremacy and rejected the New Culture's progressive thinking. Frequently, resistance turned violent, with numerous race-related riots, lynchings, pogroms in small communities, murders, and organized crime against minorities spearheaded by racist and nationalist organizations such as the Imperial Knights of Sierra (IKS) and the Workingmen's Party. The Reformed Republicans, an organized political party which upheld nativism, controlled the House of Commons briefly on two non-consecutive occasions during the 1920s, before being permanently displaced by the Democratic-Republican–Royalist system during the Approbatio period. Similarly, retaliation by pro-revolutionary forces also occurred, wreaking havoc to homes and businesses of counter-revolutionaries. These conflicts of resistance became known as the Little Civil War.
The Approbatio was a period of political turbulence and social unrest during the Revolution which was marked by numerous turnovers in the House and a progression towards increasingly authoritarian measures under the direction of King Louis I and his supporters. During the late 1910s, as the Revolution gained traction, opposition from both the left and right developed in reaction to it. The Democratic-Republicans were divided into three main camps: the Moderates, the Revolutionaries, and the Counter-Revolutionaries. While the former two supported the Revolution, the latter represented a coalition of mostly white working-class Styxers and political republicans who were alarmed at the rapid advances of the Revolution and believed that the Democratic-Republican Party had been subverted by Royalist infiltrators. Nativist and anti-Revolution leader Hiram Johnson became the leading figure of the Counter-Revolutionary Democratic-Republicans and vowed to restore the party to its pre-1903 platform.
The resurgence of Landonism in the Styxie, as well as the outbreak of a Landonist revolution in the United Commonwealth was a significant security concern for Sierra. The First Crimson Scare referred to the widespread fear of far-left extremism in Sierra and increasing suspicion towards labor unions, trade unions, unionized workers, and leftist advocates. The workers' strikes in Bernheim in 1918 became cited as one of the key events which pushed the Revolution towards a reactionary turn. In addition, the emergence of Sierran-born Zhou Xinyue, who received training at The Presidio, The Military College of San Francisco, as a prominent military figure in the Continental Revolutionary War was seen as a national embarrassment and concern. Worried that the Styxie was a breeding ground for Landonists, calls were made to "pacify" the region. As progress was made underway towards racial equality and embracement for the New Culture, various Revolution supporters and leaders began to work alongside corporations, industrialists, and business-oriented voters who supported the pro-capitalist ideology of the New Culture. Socialism, particularly the variety that was most prominent with the Styxie, became identified as insurrectionist, anti-monarchist, and racist, as the Sierran left harbored a prominent underbelly of nativists and anti-Asian supporters.
The Revolution and the resultant culture wars produced a climate of division. Louis I, who feared about the possibility of another republican rebellion and civil war, turned towards the military for help. Edmond Xu, a Chinese Sierran Royal Army field marshal, was a strong proponent of the Preparedness Movement, which advocated the development of a strong military-industrial complex supported by big business and industry to defend the country from dissident leftism and foreign invasion. Xu's proposals were especially popular among the nation's bankers, industrialists, academics, lawyers, gentry, and other upper-class members, as well as Royalist politicians and a few Democratic-Republicans. They advocated strengthening Sierra's military capabilities, and emphasized the weak vulnerability of Sierran defense. In addition, supporters hoped the efforts towards increased militarization would quicken the process of racial integration between whites and Asians, as well as other races, and serve as the litmus test for a new form of civic nationalism. They wanted to assemble a well-trained, organized military that drew in recruits from all across the Kingdom's realms, including Tondo, regardless of class or race, which would bolster Sierra's image as a modern, multiethnic empire. Many proponents proposed a mandatory two-year service for all able-bodied male citizens between the ages of 17 and 45, a proposal which the King himself voiced support.
The movement was met with significant resistance from the Democratic-Republicans, as well as nativists, antimilitarists, pacifists, and some Royalists, who felt the proposals would bring Sierra into foreign entanglement. Some even expressed concern of the militarization as a gateway to authoritarianism, a fear that was already peddled by nativists who were critical of the Cultural Revolution policies. The Preparedness campaign elicited such a strong, polarizing response that it represented the first major controversial issue not tied to the race issue in the early 20th century. The Purpleshirts, originally known as the Order of the White Rose, originated during this time of militarization and emerged as a prominent, emblematic paramilitary force which exercised informal law enforcement authority. Under the leadership of the charismatic John Higashikata, the Purpleshirts' numbers quickly grew in the passing years, reaching 100,000 members by 1924. Its organization and acceptance by the government as a "cultural police" which inspected and punished individuals suspected of treason, sedition, or subversion was strongly criticized. Its legacy has been the subject of controversy as the Purpleshirts had an extensively documented record of extrajudicial killings and kidnappings of republicans, Landonists, and other Sierran citizens.
Clashes between the extremist, militant factions of the Revolution and the Counter-Revolutionaries were frequent in the Styxie and would come to be known as the Little Civil War, which became a low-intensity, decade-long conflict centered in the region. Security forces and secret police were deployed by the government to patrol and monitor the region which had been seen as the hotbed of resistance to the Revolution.
During the Approbatio, Sierra moved away from its semi-isolationist foreign policy towards a more interventionist one. In Mexico, the escalation of the Mexican Revolution became an issue of prime interest for Sierra from both a geopolitical and domestic standpoint. Sierra feared that Mexico would fall under a Landonist regime supported by the United Commonwealth and wanted to protect its borders from possible infiltration or invasion. Sierra's navy also grew significantly as it strengthened its holdings in the Pacific and Tondo. While it had not fully become a great power, it became an important player in the international sphere, primarily through its power projection over the Pacific and in the Americas.
The electoral victory of the nativist-based Reformed Republicans under Hiram Johnson in 1919 reflected a divide between the Democratic-Republican establishment and its electorate. The offshoot party formed in reaction to the Democratic-Republicans' departure from political republicanism and Styxie-based values, and essentially split the vote. The Reformed Republicans entered into a coalition with the right-wing populist Know Nothings who championed nativism and anti-Catholicism, and were prevalent in Southern Sierra. The National Unionist was another party which had represented Royalist dissidents who had disagreed with the shift the Royalist Party underwent and joined the Reformed Republicans' coalition. Although the Reformed Republicans, Know Nothings, and National Unionist gained control over the House, their actual ability to legislate was hindered by the Royalists and Democratic-Republican opposition. The House members from both of the historic rivals entered an inter-party agreement, the Burbank Declaration, agreeing to resort to obstructionist tactics in order to thwart any meaningful legislation on the floor. The Reformed Republicans decried the declaration as anti-democratic and accused the King and the Senate for colluding with the House opposition. Two elections were held in 1920, one in March and one in September, each time held after Johnson sought to improve the number of seats in the House to overcome the opposition. While the Reformed Republicans were able to win in both elections, both yielded little net change to make an impact. Concerned with electoral fatigue and political maneuvering, King Louis I issued an edict to deny a third election which Johnson had planned in December. During the tumultuous electoral cycle, Sierra intervened in the United Commonwealth's Continental Revolutionary War alongside Brazoria and the Northeast Union. However, within three weeks, Sierra aborted its mission to support the Federalists and signed the Treaty of Bernheim, which ended Sierra's counterrevolutionary involvement and had Sierra formally recognize the Landonist regime as the successor state to the United Commonwealth.
In 1921, Democratic-Republican Phillip Judd led a coalition of both Democratic-Republicans and Royalists (retroactively referred to as the First National Government), to win a plurality over the Reformed Republicans and their coalition. Building upon the Burbank Declaration, the Democratic-Republicans and Royalists agreed to a temporary political alliance for the purpose of denying the Reformed Republicans the ability to continue "disrupting the Revolution". Setting aside economic differences and focusing on their mutual support for the cultural values and political gains of the Revolution, the First National Government sought to revise the House rules, notably by re-introducing the filibuster, which had been removed in 1902, and increasing the number of votes required to invoke cloture.
Conflict in the Styxie intensified as the National Government granted more authority to the Purpleshirts and introduced the controversial Sedition Act of 1922, a lèse-majesté law, which protected the King and members of the Royal Family from defamation, libel, and slander. The act criminalized any form of public criticism or insult against Louis I and his family. While the act was legally challenged and taken up to the Supreme Court, the Court ruled that speech or print critical against the King had "no constitutional value". The law was viewed as a direct threat to republicanism, as it made it a crime to criticize the King, although the law itself did not criminalize criticism against the institution of monarchy.
The Purpleshirts and local police cracked down on alleged seditious activity throughout the Styxie, especially in San Joaquin and Santa Clara. With habeas corpus effectively suspended in the region, accused and alleged "traitors" were often extrajudicially apprehended and prosecuted in provincial kangaroo courts. Hundreds of republican activists and other people deemed subversive to the state were killed by Purpleshirts agents or members of the public. The most infamous method of execution was lynching, although death by gun wound was just as prevalent. Numerous riots, civil disturbances, and racially-motivated pogroms also erupted during the 1920s and early 1930s.
In 1923, the First National Government experienced a breakdown as Judd and other coalition leaders including Royalist Earle Coburn encountered disagreements and infighting over the progress of the Revolution. Judd and the Democratic-Republicans favored adopting economic measures which would strengthen workers' rights, believing it was crucial to the nation's economy and infrastructure while Coburn and the Royalists disagreed. Judd was himself accused by party members for compromising the party's economic values in favor of conciliatory relations with the rival Royalists. There was also disagreement over Sierra's involvement in Mexico and other Latin American countries. The Royalists were mostly composed of interventionists while non-interventionists and isolationists dominated the Democratic-Republicans. A group of 18 Democratic-Republicans, known as the Green Hounds, defected in February to the Reformed Republican coalition, and were able to pass a successful motion of no confidence. Hiram Johnson and the Reformed Republicans were able to regain control over the House, and vowed to overturn the Sedition Act, as well as rein in the powers of the Senate. It called for progressive economic policies, an isolationist foreign policy, and the abolition of birthright citizenship. More controversially, Johnson and the Reformed Republicans introduced eugenics into its party platform, calling for racial purity and the reintroduction of racial segregation and anti-miscegenation laws.
Johnson and the Reformed Republicans' grasp over the House lasted a little more than a year after months of legislative obstruction and official investigations into the activities of some Reformed Republican and Know Nothing politicians. In January 1924, the Royal Bureau of Investigation charged 11 members of Parliament and 3 senators including Reformed Republican Deputy Prime Minister John McNiall of corruption and conspiracy to commit treason. The Reformed Republican coalition itself faced internal disagreement and personality clashes between Hiram Johnson and Know Nothing leader Daniel J. O'Brien. Frustrated with legislative inaction, Johnson once again called for new elections but was defeated by the Royalists and Earle Coburn, who had been a major leader of the First National Government.
Coburn and the Royalists took advantage of the divide in the economic left to implement some welfare state policies. Hoping to draw and lure working class voters away from the Democratic-Republicans and Reformed Republicans, Coburn promised a national policy he called the Golden Ticket, which would introduce a national public pension fund, promise higher working wages, increase funding for public schools and universities, and bring economic relief for farmers and rural workers. He also adopted a friendlier approach towards labor unions, passing the National Labor Reform Act of 1925, which guaranteed workers the right to collective bargaining with any legally registered union. The shift in economic policy from laissez-faire economics to a more state-involved one among the Royalists reflected a larger nationwide trend towards a more "compassionate, softer" version of capitalism. As Landonism and other leftist ideologies persisted as popular alternatives throughout the Revolution, as exemplified by the economic success of the Landonist United Commonwealth, a labor-friendlier approach was perceived as the "antidote" by Coburn and other leaders to the "Green Menace".
Coburn's efforts and policies to appease the working class alienated the traditional classical liberal wing of his party. During the 1926 election, Coburn and his party narrowly avoided losing their majority in the House when a number of former Royalist MPs defected and ran as the Nationalists. Meanwhile, the Democratic-Republicans and leftist opposition remained suspicious of Coburn's leaderships and rejected the Royalist overtures of cooperation and common ground on economic issues. With Hiram Johnson stepping down from his position as party leader for the Reformed Republicans, his successor, James Gladstone, was more receptive towards reconciliation with the Democratic-Republicans, and formed a coalition with them in the summer of 1926.
On June 23, 1927, Louis I, who had been suffering various health complications in his final years of life, died. Crown Prince Stephen, the King's eldest son, ascended the throne as Louis II. Unlike his father, Louis II was deemed "meeker and less ambitious" than his father, and was eager to rein in the excess of the Sierran Cultural Revolution. In his first address as king, Louis II vowed to usher in a new period of peace and partisan cooperation. He ceased issuing out noble titles to opportunists seeking favor and patronage by the Royal Family and ended the practice of numerous extravagant regal ceremonies his father enjoyed. Although he did not push for the controversial Sedition Act to be overturned, he issued a royal edict which would lift up restrictions on certain forms of speech and criticism of himself and members of the Royal Family, and reduced the abilities and powers of the Purpleshirts. Louis II's actions and steps as the new monarch marked the end of the Approbatio as hyper-revolutionary fervor died down in alignment with the shifting position in Occidental Palace.
A month after Louis I's death, Coburn and the Royalists were voted out as the Democratic-Republicans formed a coalition with the Reformed Republicans under the leadership of Poncio Salinas. Mounting dissatisfaction with the governance of the Royalists and the prolonged military involvement in Mexico greatly damaged the Royalists' prospects during the 1927 election.
The death of Louis I and the ascension of Louis II generated a ripple effect in Sierra. The new mild-mannered, moderate-minded monarch showed less enthusiasm for the revolutionary activity his father and his supporters tolerated. In addition, Coburn and the Royalists lost control over the House to Poncio Salinas, who led a new coalition between the Democratic-Republicans and the Reformed Republicans, which had reconciled with one another due to the latter largely abandoning its nativist platform following the ouster of party leader Hiram Johnson. Salinas promoted himself as a man of moderation and pragmatism, and even proclaimed that the Revolution and its effects had accomplished a "New Cultural Supremacy". Salinas, as a Mexican Sierran, declared that racial equality and cultural harmony were achieved in Sierra and that it was time for the nation to move forward under this newly established normalcy. The Sierran military was placed under civilian control again, the scope of the Purpleshirts was curtailed, and restrictions on speech and press were relaxed in a series of legislation collectively known as the Thermidorian Acts, although the lèse-majesté laws remained in place.
While much of the country had embraced the ideals and results of the Revolution, the Styxie remained a holdout region as the Little Civil War continued with fighting between the mostly Jacobite monarchists and the dissident republicans. The persistence of republican-motivated violence was blamed on looming uncertainty with the United Commonwealth. Sierran intelligence suspected that the United Commonwealth was providing covert political and economic aid to republican insurgents, and accused the Landonist state of sponsoring terrorist activities. To further complicate matters, Sierra experienced an influx of migrant workers and families from Brazoria, as well as political refugees from the United Commonwealth who were displaced by the Dust Bowl. These people, who became pejoratively known as "Okies" found employment in Sierra's Central Valley as agricultural laborers. Their arrival and place in the post-Approbatio Sierran society was contentious as they were viewed as culturally backwards, uneducated, and ignorant. Conservative Royalists and some Democratic-Republicans feared that the Okies would lead to a resurgence in republicanism across the country, especially in the volatile Styxie, while most Democratic-Republicans and nativists viewed the Okies as foreign competition that further depressed the labor market and housing availability.
In February 1931, the London Stock Exchange crashed, which greatly dampened Sierran investors' confidence in overseas markets. Market volatility increased as various European economies fell in a free fall, leading to panic selling in the Porciúncula. On April 9, 1931, the Sierran stock markets crashed, with the Porciúncula Stock Exchange losing more than 10 percent of its market value in one day. The market crashes devastated both the Sierran and global economies, and marked the start of the Depression of 1931–1934. The economic downturn led to increased confidence and public trust in government involvement in the economy. Salinas unveiled the New Pacific Plan, which introduced a comprehensive series of monetary and fiscal reforms, as well as government agencies, welfare programs, and bureaucracy. The Plan transformed Sierra into a welfare state which saw improvements to public health, housing, education, agriculture, infrastructure, pensions, business regulations, and organized labor. The National Family Registry and the National Identification Card were also introduced, which centralized vital records into a national database and integrated the growing national bureaucracy. Salinas, who was a deep admirer of the New Culture, also implemented nationwide, mandatory Sierran Hanzi instruction, designed to bridge the predominantly English-speaking population with the CJKV linguistic world.
On September 2, 1933, Sierra and the United Commonwealth were on the verge of war. Although the two countries were on the opposing sides of the Mexican Revolution, neither side's troops directly interacted or attacked each other. An informal gentlemen's agreement had been brokered between the two sides' diplomats to remain outside each other's designated "line of control" in Mexico. Miscommunication at the lower chain of command on the Sierran side resulted in Sierran Royal Army forces entering the United Commonwealth's line of control area in Veracruz, resulting in 32 dead on Sierra's side and 19 on the United Commonwealth's side, as well 88 Mexicans from both North and South Mexico. The Veracruz incident, as it came to be known, triggered alarm on both sides and the two powers accused each other of responsibility for the conflict. Sierra issued a communique demanding the United Commonwealth apologize for the loss of Sierran and allied Mexican soldiers, and removal of Continental forces in the area, while the United Commonwealth issued its own counter-demand. The ensuing diplomatic crisis was the September Crisis and generated fear amongst the Sierran public on the possibility of a direct war with the United Commonwealth and a subsequent ground invasion by the Continentals. Both governments did not seek a war with one another due to the potential for great loss of human life and economic devastation, and arranged peace talks at the Shenandoah Conference to resolve the two states' involvement in Mexico. The Conference produced an agreement between the two states which would reduce their military presence in Mexico and further established a detente between the two states whereby the two agreed not to interfere with each other's internal affairs or the political statuses of their neighbors in North America. While the talks averted crisis and was praised by pacifists, the popularity of Salinas dampened among his anti-Continentalist base who believed the talks were a form of appeasement with the Landonist United Commonwealth.
In 1934, Salinas and the Democratic-Republicans narrowly lost control over the House and the Royalists under Richard Rioux who secured a plurality in the House. The Democratic-Republicans had once again suffered division within its own rank and file membership, and voter base, as anti-monarchists and political republicans felt that the party had continue to betray its ideological roots. Rioux and the Royalists were elected as a reactionary backlash against Salinas' New Pacific Plan, which had created only modest economic recovery as unemployment levels remained relatively high and reduced consumer spending persisted. Critics feared that Salinas' economic reforms and government expansion would "infantilize" the Sierran public and criticized his government-planned economic model as a reminiscent imitation of the United Commonwealth's economic policies. Rioux was unable to overturn much of Salinas' policies however, as his own hung parliament and the the Democratic-Republican majority Senate stonewalled his attempts to reimplement classical liberal policies. Following a worker's strike and civil unrest in Bernheim in 1935, Rioux was forced to abandon his plans to tampering with the New Pacific Plan. He began working closer with the progressive wing of the Royalists and conservative Democratic-Republicans towards achieving a liberal corporatist policy which would balance one-nation conservatism with more labor-friendly corporatism. The Royalists had long suffered weakness in the Styxie and the Pacific Northwest provinces, which had a number of battleground districts that were critical for House elections.
Rioux's pivot towards a labor-friendlier center proved successful as the Royalists won in 1936. He passed the Fair Pacific Plan, which was a modified version of Salinas' New Pacific Plan that would downsize some of the Salinas-era agencies without dissolving them and would implement greater protections for small business owners, the introduction of right-to-work laws and agency shop requirements, and give payroll tax cuts to working class employees. The Plan was praised as a moderate version that was more palpable to businesses and industrialists, and some working-class Sierran voters expressed their support likewise. Labor unions remained mainly opposed to the deal and continued to campaign for the Democratic-Republican opposition.
In 1938, the Royalists maintained their control over the House, seemingly vindicating Rioux's Fair Pacific Plan as the party was able to turn over or hold some Democratic-Republican-leaning districts to their favor. However, a decades-long dispute between the Gold Coast and the Inland Empire over water rights intensified just a month after the election when the City of Porciúncula sought to divert more water away from the depleting Owens Valley in the Central Valley. Due to the city's continued expansion, there was an upward demand for water. The federal government had approved the city's purchase of water lines on federal land in the Inland Empire during the 1920s, which devastated the local agricultural business. The city and province made plans to divert more money from Mono Lake, which was located in southeastern San Joaquin. Rioux, in an attempt to mediate, was concerned that the city, long perceived as a Royalist stronghold and bastion of Southwest Corridor society would further alienate the separatist-minded Styxie San Joaquin. He and some Royalist House members decided to side with San Joaquin and the Central Valley by passing the Eaton–Gaines Act (also known as the Water Preservation Act), which would prohibit the sale of federal lands over major waterways and bodies of water between provinces without electoral mandate. The law was challenged in court in Gold Coast v. Sierra, which ruled in favor of the federal government, which proved highly unpopular among voters in the Gold Coast. The water wars and the case was seen as a national issue pitting the South against the North, and many Southwest Corridor voters who supported the Royalists felt betrayed by the act.
Salinas, who campaigned himself as the more effectual politician and his party as the party of opportunity won in a landslide election in 1939. He portrayed Rioux as an imitator and his handling of Sierra's water wars as the sign of a timid, conflicted leader. Although Salinas had personally supported the Eaton–Gaines Act, he capitalized on national anger over the issue as an infrastructure issue. He proposed drastically improving Sierra's waterways and irrigation system which would allocate water fairly and proportionally. The National Water Management Agency was created in 1940 to oversee Sierra's federal water pipelines, dams, and levees, and several major reservoirs were created.
In 1940, tensions between Sierra and the United Commonwealth flared when a Landonist Hawaiian revolutionary Kaholo Palakiko attempted to assassinate King Louis II on November 27, during a Sierra Day parade. Hawaii was an organized territory of Sierra at the time and there was a significant movement of Hawaiian nationalists who advocated separatism and independence from the Kingdom. The movement included the All-Hawaiian People's Congress (AHPC), which was a far-left political organization that was labeled as a terrorist organization by the Sierran government. The Sierran government had been suspicious of Continental influence and support of the AHPC, which would be in circumvention of the 1933 Shenandoah Conference Agreement. The assassination attempt prompted the Sierran government to convict and execute Palakiko, to impose restrictions on Hawaiian home rule, and to make Hawaiian independence advocacy a punishable act of sedition. The moves were protested by the United Commonwealth, which urged Sierra to rescind its decisions. Despite diplomatic pressure, Sierra refused, which soured relations with Chicago.
In 1941, a Landonist revolt broke out in North Mexico, whose government was friendly to Sierra and had received support since the end of the Mexican Revolution which saw the Mexican nation divided into three states, with South Mexico being backed by the United Commonwealth, and the Republic of the Yucatán, which was a Sierran protectorate. Alarmed by the string of Landonist revolutions in the North American continent, Sierra accused the United Commonwealth on reneging its promises in the Shenandoah Conference and Sierran military officials began preparing plans for a possible invasion against the United Commonwealth as Operation Downed Sequoia.
In the United Commonwealth, the government had anticipated a Sierran invasion in the years following the Shenandoah Conference. Although the United Commonwealth had been successful in supporting Landonist revolutions in Quebec, the Northeast Union (now known as the Congregationalist States), and the Maritime Republic in the years prior to the Conference, it remained vulnerable and exposed in its western region, where it neighbored the pro-Sierran states of Brazoria, Tournesol, and Superior. Securing a buffer zone between the United Commonwealth and Sierra, and isolating Sierra in the North American continent was deemed a strategic necessity which would tip the geopolitical dynamism of the region completely in the favor of the United Commonwealth. In addition, the Continental Revolutionary Navy was much weaker than the more developed Sierran Royal Navy. Although Sierra's navy was mainly Pacific-based, Sierran had completed construction of the Nicaragua Canal back in 1919, which made the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, and Atlantic Ocean much more accessible. As a result, Sierra established naval stations in Cancún, where the fleet there had been deployed on several occasions to initiate blockades during the Mexican Revolution and other conflicts in Central America. The United Commonwealth believed it was imperative for it to attack and seize control over the Nicaragua Canal to cut Sierra's Atlantic fleet off from swift reinforcements in the Pacific.
By April 1942, the Landonist insurgency in North Mexico had evolved into a full-scale, protracted civil war. Sierra began sending military officers from the Sierran Royal Army to advise and train the North Mexican military to deal with the guerrilla warfare tactics of the insurgents, most of whom were hiding in the Sierra Madre Oriental. The Sierran government also provided indirect military and economic aid to the country through its foreign direct investment shell companies and private entities to circumvent the prohibition against military aid under the Shenandoah Conference Agreement. The United Commonwealth, in turn, sent a diplomatic team to South Mexico to discuss the possibilities of reunifying Mexico under a Landonist regime, with the expectation that North Mexico would fall to the insurgency. In the meetings, the United Commonwealth revealed its military plans to invade and occupy Brazoria, while South Mexico would invade North Mexico.
Great War I
During the outbreak of Great War I, Sierra remained initially neutral when the conflict was limited to Europe. However, following the Japanese surprise attack on the Sierran Royal Navy's Asiatic Squadron in Manila Bay, Tondo, Sierra joined as a belligerent of the Entente Impériale. Sierra had signed a military alliance with China, France, and Russia in the Quadripartite Pact, which were the leading powers of the Entente. Sierra invaded the German-controlled Caroline Islands shortly after, seeking to secure a base to defend Tondo in case of Japanese advance. Shortly after Sierra entered the conflict in the Pacific, war broke out in North America when the United Commonwealth invaded Sierra's allies: Brazoria and Superior, and attacked the Sierran-controlled Nicaragua Canal Zone.
Sierran military leaders and planners had long considered the possibility of a two-front war, one in the Pacific and one in Continental North America. The Sierran and Japanese navies were both roughly equal in terms of technological parity but Sierra lacked the resources or manpower to confront Japan while the United Commonwealth would attack. When the two-front war became a reality, Sierra adopted a defensive war strategy in the Pacific, abandoning its defenses in the outlying Pacific territories of Guam and Northern Mariana, as well as the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, while protecting Hawaii from possible Japanese invasion. With Tondo occupied by Japan, the opportunity for a Sierran comeback was not immediately achievable, with Sierra hoping that Russia would eventually lead its own invasion in Manchuria and the Korean peninsula to improve Sierra's chances. In the home front, Sierra sought to halt Continentalist advances into Western Brazoria and North Mexico.
The United Commonwealth held both the numerical advantage in population and manpower, and the industrial capacity to outperform Sierra and its allies. During the first year of the war, the United Commonwealth made swift gains over Superior and Eastern Brazoria, overwhelming the Entente powers. The prospect of a Sierran-led invasion into Continental soil was abandoned as the Allies focused on regaining control over the Continental-occupied territories of Superior and Brazoria. Homefront war production increased manifoldly as Sierra sought to fight for its own survival in the two-front global conflict. Sierra initially mobilized over a half a million men (representing about two percent of the national population) to fight in the war through conscription. However, by 1943, Sierra had increased the number of actively deployed servicemen to 1.2 million or roughly 6% of the population, which was a 140% increase. Although Sierra lacked the manpower to fight the United Commonwealth on the ground, it made up for it through naval superiority and a slight edge over the United Commonwealth in terms of airpower. Its neighbor, Brazoria, which had become renowned for its first-class air force, helped improve the Sierran Royal Air Force's capabilities and operations considerably during the war. In addition, Sierra made liberal use of chemical weapons, which had been developed prior to the war. Chlorine gas and hydrogen cyanide were commonly deployed by Sierran foot soldiers and planes against Continental troops, and this was cited as a major factor in Sierra's success to limiting Continental advance despite numerical disadvantages.
Between late 1943 and much of 1944, the North American Front had become mostly a war of attrition fought across the Superian Great Plains and Central Brazoria. In the Pacific, Sierra lost control over Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Tondo, Bénieîle, the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, and the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands including Midway Island. The Sierran economy had transformed into a fully operational wartime machine as manufacturing increased. The government raised national taxes and issued hundreds of thousands of war bonds to citizens, and awarded contracts and multi-million dollar deals with companies which agreed to switch their production to military-related products and services during the war.
During the late 1943, the Continentalist forces broke through Entente resistance in the Great Plains and made advances towards the Sierran heartland. The imminent possibility of Continental invasion of the Sierran mainland prompted the Sierran military leadership to ramp up its defenses along the Rocky Mountains, a natural geographic barrier between Sierra and the eastern half of North America, as well as the Chihuahuan Desert. During the early months of 1944, the Continental forces made preparations to invade the Sierran mainland and used detonation crews to widen the mountain passes along the Rocky Mountains. By April 1944, the Continental 4th Army reached Hoosier Pass, which was a major entryway connecting Sierra's West Colorado and Brazoria's Ute Province. This breach led the Sierran military leaders to believe that if left unchallenged, the Continental Army would be able to reach and capture Porciúncula by August of that year. Sierran troops were rallied to prevent Continental advance through Hoosier Pass and the multi-day Battle of Hoosier Pass ensued, resulting in over 9,000 Sierrans killed, but ultimately halting Continental movement. The battle was deemed a pivotal moment for the North American Front as the United Commonwealth soon abandoned its plans to invade the Sierran mainland, and recalled its troops from the Rockies and Coloradan region.
The defense of the Rockies bolstered Sierran civilian patriotism and crushed Continental internal support for the war. Sierra was able to push back Continental lines in Western Superior and Central Brazoria by the winter of 1944. Throughout much of 1945, Entente forces fought intensely against Continental resistance across the Great Plains, slowly inching towards the United Commonwealth. Technological advancements in tank warfare, aircraft, explosives, and chemical weapons helped maintain Entente late-war edge over the demoralized Continental troops. In early 1946, after Sierra helped Brazoria retake the Sabine Province and Superior retake southern Wisconsin, the United Commonwealth's Seamus Callahan offered a ceasefire agreement, which was accepted by the Entente governments. The Armistice of Houston was signed between the United Commonwealth and the Entente on October 22, 1945, effectively making peace in the North American Front aside from limited, continued fighting in Mexico and the Caribbean. The parties agreed to a cessation of hostilities and to restore territory to the status quo ante bellum, with the United Commonwealth repatriating Nicaragua and the Yucatán Peninsula to Sierra.
Burnt out by war, Sierra decided to sue for peace with Japan in the Pacific rather than attempt to retake its lost territories. The two nations agreed to a ceasefire and negotiated terms, known as the Midway Island Agreement, where Sierra would recognize Japan's claims in the Pacific in exchange for the return of Tondo, the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, and a number of other islands. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands would remain under Japanese control however provided Japan guaranteed Sierran citizens the right to have continued abode there or to repatriate them to Sierra safely after the war ended.
The war formally ended after fighting persisted mainly in Europe and Northern Africa into the spring months of 1946. Sierra was a key signatory of the Treaty of Verdun, which officially ended the war and finalized peace agreement first affirmed in the Armistice of Houston and Midway Island Agreement. The Salinas Government favored reconciliation rather than retribution with the United Commonwealth and did not demand reparations. However, it did demand reparations from the Japanese government as compensation for the seizure of Sierra's territorial possessions in the Pacific. Furthermore, it urged the signatory powers to join the League of Nations, an international organization intended to prevent future conflicts, and to pursue policies of free trade to facilitate international cooperation and goodwill.
Second Interwar period
After the Treaty of Verdun was ratified, Sierra focused on postwar economic recovery. Although Sierran infrastructure was largely spared from the devastation seen in continental Europe, Brazoria, and Superior, it dealt with the loss of over 539,000 Sierran soldiers who were killed in the war. The conflict had drastically altered the landscape of national culture and politics. During the war, Salinas led the multiparty Second and Third National Governments, which united Sierra's major and minor parties for the war effort. Salinas resigned and retired from politics shortly after the war ended despite amassing widespread popularity as a wartime prime minister. His legacy remained entrenched in Sierran politics however as New Pacific Plan was deemed a success and his successor, Charles Lyon, sought to extend it further. In addition, King Louis II died just months after the war's end in an automobile accident, leaving his eldest son, the Crown Prince Christopher to accede the throne as Louis III. Unlike his father, Louis III was similar to his grandfather in temperament and style, and had ambitious plans to strengthen the prestige and influence of the monarchy.
The Democratic-Republican Party became the party of welfare capitalism, progressivism, and social liberalism, while the Royalist Party became the party of one-nation conservatism and liberal corporatism. Both parties became the dominant powerhouses in the postwar party system, while political support for the Reformed Republicans, Know Nothings, National Unionists, and other third parties withered substantially. Sierran geopolitics witnessed a realignment as the cities became more Democratic-Republican, while rural Sierra and the suburbs became more Royalist. Common to both parties was the rising acceptance of modern-day Sierran liberalism and a rejection of the quasi-derzhavism and derzhavism which was prevalent during the Approbatio.
In 1947, Sierra had its first Asian Sierran prime minister, Franklin Tan of the Royalists, who defeated the Lyon Government. Tan was a charismatic national figure who championed himself as a man of traditional, conservative values and a modernist approach towards economic innovation and progress, as a middle ground between conservative Democratic-Republicans and liberal Royalists. Under his first government, Parliament authorized the creation of the Interprovincial Highway System, which would supersede the previous Salinas-era National Highway System. Although the interprovincial highways would take decades to complete, it laid down the foundations of Sierra's modern-day car culture and intricate freeway system. This system also led to the development of Anglo-American suburbia throughout Sierra, especially in the Southwest Corridor and the San Francisco Bay Area. Under Tan, he also expanded Sierra's Social Security program and created the Ministry of Health and Human Services. Medicare and Medicaid were introduced, and a system of single-payer universal health care that was run and financed by the individual provinces was implemented. The Townsend Plan and Egg and Ham Program were also introduced, which granted all retirees 60 and older a taxable basic monthly income of $200 and $30 weekly to those over 50.
Like much of the Western world, Sierra experienced the "Fierce Fifties" as the economy was booming by 1952, and Sierra experienced a golden age in television, radio, cinema, and music. Hollywood became internationally renowned for its cinematic productions and high-budget television shows. Grands Ballons jazz, West Coast blues, and Western swing were popular musical genres which flourished during this decade and was the zeitgeist that defined the postwar optimism Sierran society felt.
Diplomatic relations between Sierra and the United Commonwealth remained terse but cautiously calculated. Both states resumed diplomatic relations after the war and reopened trade as well. The Sierran government fostered closer ties with Astoria, Brazoria, and Superior, and formed the North American Defense Organization, which was a mutual defense pact and security organization designed to discourage future wars of aggression in North America. The nation's collective aerospace would also be protected under the organization through shared aerospace warning and control. In Latin America, Sierra continued its heavy-handed involvement in individual countries such as South Mexico, Nicaragua, and the Andes. Sierran policymakers wanted to maintain a Sierran sphere of influence consisting of dependable allies in the region without provoking Continental retaliation with its own sphere of influence. Deeply concerned of a total Landonization in Latin America, the Sierran government forged close ties with anti-Landonist military regimes and conservative governments in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Although race relations and politics were fundamentally changed by the Sierran Cultural Revolution, the New Culture synthesis which fused Anglo-American and East Asian cultures were challenged by Hispanic and Latino Sierrans, as well as Black Sierrans who continued to feel marginalized and ostracized in Sierran society. The Chicano Movement and Black Power movement, as well as the Red Power movement emerged, casting light on the persistent racialized disparities that were present in Sierran life. Protests, boycotts, and civil unrest were common, especially in the Central Valley and Southwest Corridor. The Black-Brown unity was presented as a response to the New Culture, which aroused suspicion and concern by the Sierran government and intelligence. By the late 1950s, hundreds of activists were monitored, arrested, or even killed by government agents, and various organizations were infiltrated and disrupted by informants and agent provocateurs.
Calls for increased autonomy in the Sierran territories of Hawaii, the Deseret, and Alaska prompted Sierra to upgrade the former two as constituent countries in the Kingdom of Sierra under the Charter for the Kingdom of Sierra while the latter was granted independence as a Columbian commonwealth realm. Hawaii and the Deseret would remain a part of the Kingdom but have their own devolved government, legislatures, courts, and laws, and be able to conduct their own limited external relations with foreign powers. Hawaii was organized into eight states while the Deseret was organized into six areas. While Hawaii adopted a federal representative democracy similar to mainland Sierra's structure, the Deseret created a theodemocratic system devised by the religious leaders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, which became entrenched with the Deseret state.
During the interwar period, Sierra also saw major advances in military technology. Sierra collaborated with French scientists and engineers in refining missile technology and nuclear technology. It made a breakthrough in 1956 when it successfully tested and detonated the world's first atom bomb, The Tiger, near Area 51, Clark. Despite meticulous planning and strict confidentiality, sensitive documents and plans came under the hands of foreign informants and spies, including those from the United Commonwealth, which also began its own development of missile and thermonuclear technology. A silent arms race began, causing great concern for Sierran intelligence and policymakers who were aware of the top secret military programs.
Great War II
International politics remained uneasy throughout the Fierce Fifties as Great War I had left various issues unsettled. In Sierra, policymakers and members of the public were uninterested in the prospect of another world war. Under the prime ministry of Henry Faulkner, the government's defense policy was one based on deterrence and a preference to diplomatic conflict resolution. Sierra and the United Commonwealth enjoyed a renewed state of detente and the two even held reciprocal state visits for the first time since the Continental Revolutionary War. Two major international agreements: the North American Amity Treaty and the New Orleans Accords, were signed between Sierra, the United Commonwealth, and other North American states to cultivating peace, dialogue, and mutual aid with one another. As the Sierran government liberalized, it grew concerned with the rise of derzhavism in its allies, France and Russia. Seeking to distance itself from the derzhavist policies of these states, Sierra forged closer relations with its historic rivals, Germany and the United Kingdom. In the Pacific, Sierra maintained close relations with China, while its relationship with Japan remained frayed. Japan, which had effectively achieved its goals in Great War I, sought to consolidate and expand its influence across the Asia–Pacific, and had begun supporting the various independent movements in Southeast Asia and Oceania, including the colonies of allied nations. The First Indochina War broke out between mostly Vietnamese nationalists and the French, with Japan sponsoring the former and Russia assisting the latter. Although Sierra was not obligated to participate, the French government expected some form of Sierran assistance. Instead, Sierra maintained a policy of neutrality, which strained relations between the two states. Sierra and Japan switched sides in the international diplomatic web in what came to be known as the Second Diplomatic Revolution as they realigned themselves with former enemies. Nonetheless, Sierra remained neutral over the wars of independence in British Malaysia and the Dutch East Indies, and did not object to Japanese interference, reflecting Sierra's desire to remain uninvolved in overseas conflicts.
Sierra remained neutral, offering trade to nations and dependencies on both sides of the conflict in the Pacific until April 1962. During that month, a Sierran Royal Navy frigate, HRMS Glasgow traveling through international waters in the South China Sea was allegedly rammed and sunk by a hostile Japanese Imperial Navy destroyer. Over 150 onboard crew members died, while the rest were captured and detained by the Japanese. The naval confrontation, which became known as the Glasgow incident, sparked national outrage. Sierran policymakers and military leadership, hoping to recoup the territories lost in Great War I and to restore Sierran prestige in the Pacific, rallied to declare war on Japan. Without the worry of a two-front war that Sierra had in the previous global conflict, Sierra was able to concentrate the majority of its military projection and war effort in the Pacific. On April 21, 1962, Parliament declared war on Japan, bringing the country officially into the global conflict.
Sierra launched a naval sortie into the South China Sea, raiding Japanese positions in Taiwan and Vietnam, as well as the former Sierran territories of Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Retaking control over the latter two islands was deemed a matter of both strategic and symbolic importance, as the islands provided command over the North Pacific Ocean. Meanwhile, Sierran forces were given access into the independent Republic of Tondo which anticipated a potential Japanese invasion. The Sierran moves took Japan by surprise, which had not anticipated a full-scale Sierran offense. Sierra also conducted an air raid on Tokyo, which inflicted minimal physical damage but produced significant psychological damage to the Japanese public psyche. Concerned by the serious threat Sierra posed and its resolve to fight a potentially protracted war, Japan sought to bolster its defenses. The Japanese naval commanders entertained the idea of attacking Pearl Harbor in Hawaii but reasoned that Sierra's land-based airpower there had increased considerably since Great War I. The Japanese sought to lure all of the Sierran fleet to Midway Island, a small atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands that the Japanese could exploit and felt the Sierrans deemed was a vital outpost.
Geography, climate, and environment
Location and borders
Geographically, Sierra includes more than three-fourths of the Kingdom of Sierra's incorporated territory. It is bordered by one of the other two constituent countries of the Kingdom of Sierra: the Deseret to the east. It shares borders with four Sierran unincorporated territories: Pacífico Norte to the south, West New Mexico and West Colorado to the east, and Sweetwater to the north. Federal Sierra shares its only international border with Astoria in the north. It also shares its entire coastline with the North Pacific Ocean and is separated from the Kingdom's other constituent country, Hawaii, by nearly 2,500 miles (4,000 km2). Sierra is located on the western coast of North America. It has a total area of approximately 473,200 square miles (1,225,582 km2), of which 8.99 percent is water or 42,540 square miles (110,180 km2).
Geology, topography, and hydrography
The Sierra Coast Ranges are multiple mountain ranges which defines more than two-thirds of Sierra's coastline and includes the Klamath Mountains; the Northern Coast Ranges in the Pacific Northwest; and the Southern Coast Range in Central Sierra and the northernmost part of the Southwest Corridor. These mountains run roughly along the coast in a north-south parallel fashion. The San Francisco Bay is a major body of water which separates the Northern and Southern Coast Ranges. The Transverse Ranges begin at the southern end of the Southern Coast Ranges and runs along a northwest-southeast orientation, extending into parts of the Mojave Desert and the Sonoran Desert. The Peninsular Ranges starts off at a fork from the Transverse Ranges, starting at the Santa Ana Mountains which runs north-south towards the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula.
The Sierra Central Valley, also known as the Golden Valley, is the main defining feature directly to the east of the Sierra Coast Ranges in northern and Central Sierra. Bound between the Coast Ranges to the west, the Cascade Range to the north, the Sierra Nevada to the east, and the Transverse Ranges to the south, the large valley is divided into two main sections of the Sacramento–San Joaquin Valley Delta: the Sacramento Valley to the north with the Sacramento River as its main watershed and the San Joaquin Valley to the south with the San Joaquin River. In the Southwest Corridor, the Mojave Desert and Sonoran Desert dominate the inland region directly east of the coastal ranges, while the Porciúncula Basin is the main physiogeographic landform between the coast and the mountains. Sierra's largest lake by area, the Salton Sea, lies in a sink within the Colorado Desert, a subsection of the Sonoran Desert.
The Sierra Nevada is a major, important mountain range which runs along a roughly north-south orientation separates Central Valley from the eastern Basin and Range Province. The Sierra Nevada includes Sierra's highest point, Mount Whitney, which rises to 14,505 ft (4,421 m). This point is only 84.6 miles west-northwest of the lowest point in Sierra and North America, the Badwater Basin of Death Valley, which goes down to 282 ft (86 m) below sea level. In the northern portion of the Sierra Nevada lies Sierra's deepest and largest lake by volume, Lake Tahoe.
The Basin and Range Province covers much of the Sierra Interior and Eastern Sierra. Named for its basin and range topography, it is punctuated with alternating narrow mountain ranges and flat valleys that run approximately parallel to one another in a north-south direction. The Basin and Range Province includes the Great Basin, Sierra's and North America's largest endorheic watershed. Running through the lower half of the Basin and Range Province is the Colorado River, which flows from the central Rocky Mountains in Sierra's West Colorado territory, and drains into the Sea of Cortés in Sierra's Pacífico Norte territory. The river's largest bodies of war are Lake Mead and Lake Havasu, both of which are manmade reservoirs. A notable geographic formation which the Colorado River runs through is the Grand Canyon, one of the Seven Natural Wonders of the World, which runs for 277 miles (446 km) long and reaches more than a mile (6,093 feet or 1,857 meters) in depth. Within Southeastern Interior Sierra, the Colorado Plateau dominates the northern half of the region while the Transition Zone escarpment and Mogollon Rim separates the Plateau from the Basin and Range Province to the south.
Sierra lies on the Ring of Fire, specifically on the boundary where the Pacific Plate meets and subducts underneath the North American Plate. Several major fault such as the San Andreas Fault run through much of Western Sierra. Earthquakes are frequently common and every few years, a moderately strong earthquake hits which can cause damage. Every few decades, a large, more devastating earthquake may occur. The Big One refers to the anticipated future megathrust earthquake of a magnitude greater than 7.0 on the moment magnitude scale. Such earthquakes periodically hit Sierra every 100–300 years at various sections of the fault lines or their associated branches. In addition to earthquakes, Sierra has several volcanoes, of which eight have been identified as active including Mount Shasta.
Royal Redwood National Park in Shasta
Aulon Island of the Farallon Islands
Farmland in Central Valley
Big Sur overlooking the Pacific Ocean
Sand dunes in the Sonoran Desert
Although Sierra is generally semi-arid (Köppen: BSk) throughout the country, its large size accommodates a wide range of climates. Various factors including topography, latitude, and proximity to the coast influence the climate. Along the coasts, the climate is distinctly warm-summer Mediterranean (Köppen: Csa), with the influence of the cool Sierra Current. The current moderates the temperature range in the coastal part of the country. In the Mediterranean climate regions of Sierra, the regions generally experience mild, wet winners and warm, dry summers. Much of the annual precipitation falls between late October and early April, with the heaviest rainfall (or snowfall in higher elevations) occurring in the months of January and February. The climate becomes drier and more continental the further inland from the coastline. In low-lying valleys within roughly 100 miles of the coast, the climate is usually hot-summer Mediterranean (Köppen: CSb) or semi-arid. Further inland, in the desert and Great Basin regions, the climate is a hot arid climate (Köppen: BWh). Due to the Sierra Nevada, a major rain shadow has resulted in the Great Basin provinces being the driest in the entire country. Some of the highest recorded temperatures have been recorded in Mojave Desert in Death Valley. The highest recorded temperature in the world was recorded as 134 °F (56.7 °C) on July 10, 1913 in Death Valley, Inland Empire. In Eastern Sierra, the region usually experiences two wet seasons, one during the winter similar to those in the Mediterranean climates, and another during the summer due to the North American Monsoon, which brings torrential, but brief rainfall, thunderstorms, and lightning. Flash floods are common in the drier parts of the country, especially during the monsoon.
Westerly winds and moisture from the Pacific are responsible for bringing precipitation to Sierra. Northwestern Sierra often experiences the wettest rainfall. The rainfall averages between 15 inches (380 mm) to 50 inches (1,300 mm), although some places may receive over 100 inches (2,500 mm) annually. In the high mountains, as well as elevations greater than 3,000 feet in Western Sierra, snowfall is common during the winter and feature a mountain climate. Locations such as Lake Tahoe, Mammoth Lakes, Mount Shasta, and Big Bear Lake commonly receive over 10 feet (3.0 m) of snow during the wet season. The frequency, intensity, and amount of precipitation Sierra receives annually fluctuates and is greatly influenced by the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. During El Niño, the jet stream off the coast travels southward through Sierra, which brings warmer temperatures and more rainfall. During La Niña, the jet stream moves further northward and brings heavier rainfall in northern Sierra but less rain in the rest of Sierra. Periodically, Sierra may experience bouts of drought, which increases the risk of natural wildfires, especially during the drier months of the summer and fall.
Notable local weather phenomena which occur in Sierra include: the Tule fog in the Central Valley, where extremely low-visibility, heavy fogs develop in the early mornings during the wet season; the May Gray and June Gloom morning overcast and fog in the Southwest Corridor during the early summer months; the Pacific Northwest marine layer which develops over the northern and central coast of Sierra between late spring and early fall; and the Santa Ana winds, hot, dry winds which blow from the High Desert into the lower-lying valleys of the Southwest Corridor, usually during the spring or fall, and can increase the chance of wildfires or worsen existing ones.
Despite Sierra being mostly semi-arid desert, it is classified as a megadiverse country. It is divided into several ecoregions which contain their own distinct ecological communities of plants, animals, and fungi within a contiguous area. As part of the Nearctic ecozone, the broadest categories of Sierra's ecoregions are the deserts, Mediterranean, forested mountains, and coastal forests. Each of these categories are further divided into WWF-defined ecoregions based on species endemism. Sierra includes a large number of endemic species, including a significant amount of endangered species of plants and animals that have been threatened by human activity and those whose populations have become relicts.
Sierra has a total of 16 national parks, nine national monuments, and 354 provincial parks, as well as dozens of natural reserves and wilderness areas. These parks are protected lands owned by either the federal or provincial governments. The federal government owns more than two-thirds of all Sierran public land, of which the majority is protected although some areas are leased for a variety of purposes including commercial logging, mining, ranching, or oil drilling.
Flora, fauna, and fungi
There are more than 200 species of mammals, 500 species of birds, 200 species of reptiles and amphibians, 500 species of fish, 600 species of insects and other invertebrate such as crustaceans, arthropods, and mollusks. 6,500 species of vascular plants including flowering plants, and tens of thousands of species of mosses, lichens, algae, and fungi which live in Sierra. Possessing one of the world's most diverse biota, there are hundreds of species which are unique and endemic only to Sierra. There have been six identified life zones, based on climate and elevation: the lower Sonoran (desert), the upper Sonoran (foothills and some coastal plains), the transition (coastal areas), the Canadian, the Hudsonian, and the Arctic Zones (the latter three zones occupying the highest elevations).
The native flora species of Sierra are part of the Madrean Region. Sierra features three main phytochorion or floristic provinces: the Great Basin, the Sierra Floristic Province, and the Sonoran. Within Sierra's floral community, it boasts some of the world's superlatives: the largest trees, the tallest trees, and the oldest trees.
In the lower Sonoran region, various species of cacti, mesquite, paloverde, and shrub exist. The endemic Yucca brevifolia (Joshua tree) is a unique species of tree which grows only in the Mojave Desert. Other notable species include the Larrea tridentata (Creosote bush), Encelia farinosa (Brittle bush), Atriplex polycarpa (allscale saltbush), Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa (Buckhorn cholla), and Ambrosia deltoidea (triangle bursage). Desert wildflowers and shrubs which bloom briefly following heavy rain include the Xylorhiza tortifolia (Mojave aster), Coleogyne ramosissima (blackbrush), Hesperocallis undulata (desert lily), Rafinesquia neomexicana (desert chicory), Abronia villosa (desert-sand verbana), Delphinium parishii (desert larkspur), Dichelostemma capitatum (blue dick), and Amsinckia tessellata (bristly fiddleneck). Mammals which live in this life zone include Dipodomys stephensi (Stephens' kangaroo rat), Vulpes macrotis (kit fox), Canis latrans (coyote), Lepus serra (black-tailed jackrabbit), Macrotus serra (Sierra leaf-nosed bat), and Peromyscus serra (Sierra mouse). Various species of squirrels and other burrowing rodents are also common here. Common birds include Calypte anna (Anna's hummingbird), Geococcyx serra (Greater roadrunner), Callipepla gambelii (Gambel's quail), Aphelocoma serra (Western scrub jay), and Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus (cactus wren).
In the upper Sonoran region, the chaparral is typified by the presence of shrubs, varied trees, and herbaceous plants. Mountain conifers can be found in the mountainous parts of this region. Tree species include Pinus sabiniana (Gray pine), Quercus dumosa (Scrub oak), Quercus agrifolia (Coast live oak), Aesculus serra (Sierra buckeye), Cupressus goveniana (Gowen cypress), Juglans serra (Sierra walnut) and Cupressus macrocarpa (Monterey cypress). Common flowering plants and shrubs include Hesperoyucca whipplei (Chaparral yucca), Dudlea densiflora (Mountain liveforever), Cercocarpus traskiae (Catalina mahogany), Streptanthus albidus ssp. Peramoenus (most beautiful jewel-flower), Artemisia serra (Sierra sagebrush), Encelia serra (brittlebush), Eriogonum fasciculatum (Sierra buckwheat), Salvia munzii (Munz's sage), Agave shawii (Shaw's agave), Dudleya caespitosa (coastal dudleya), Cylindropuntia prolifera (coastal cholla cactus), and Bergerocactus emoryi (golden cereus cactus). Common native species of wildlife which live in this region include Antilocapra americana (pronghorn), Neotoma fuscipes (dusty-footed woodrat), Bassariscus astutus (ring-tailed cat), Toxostoma redivivum (Sierra thrasher), Psaltriparus minimus (American bushtit), and Gymnogyps serra (Sierra condor).
In the transition zone, where the majority of Sierra's forests are located in, trees which grow and thrive include Sequoia sempervirens (redwood), Sequoiadendron giganteum (giant sequoia), Notholithocarpus densiflorus (tan-bark oak), Umbellularia serra (Sierra laurel), Pinus lambertiana (sugar pine), madrona, Acer macrophyllum (Astoria maple), and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir). Common plants which grow on the transition zone forest floors are various species of Polystichum (swordfern), Epimedium (barrenwort), Trillium (birthwort), huckleberry, and azalea, as well as Lilium columbianum (tiger lily), Lilium pardalinum (leopard lily), and various species of Calochortus (mariposa lillies).
Race and ancestry
Family structure and law
Government and politics
Sierra is an asymmetrical federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy. It utilizes a ubiquitous blend of Westminster-style parliamentarianism and Anglo-American federalism as its form of government. The government is regulated by checks and balances and a limited form of separation of powers among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There is a fusion of powers between the executive and legislative branches. Within the country of Sierra, it operates a federalist system where citizens are subject to three levels of government: local, provincial, and federal. The local level is commonly split between municipal and county governments. At the provincial level, all governments function based off of the Kingdom's parliamentary system (combined executive and legislature) or the Anglo-American system (separate executive and legislature).
In addition to being a federation, it is a constituent country of the Kingdom of Sierra. The sovereign and head of state of Sierra is Elizabeth II (legally known as the Crown) of whom the entire government derives its legitimacy from. She is also the head of state of three other sovereign states. The monarchy serves as the foundation for Sierra's executive, legislative, and judicial institutions. The Constitution of Sierra is codified and forms one of the supreme laws in Sierra, alongside the Charter for the Kingdom of Sierra.
Although Sierra is a constituent country within the Kingdom of Sierra, its government, constitution, and laws are the de facto national order for the entire Kingdom. While the two other constituent countries (Hawaii and the Deseret) have an extensive degree of devolved powers, local powers, and exemption from Sierra's constitution, Sierra itself lacks its own devolved policymaking decisions, legislature, and powers. The federal government of Sierra has commonly and legally been interchangeable with the national government of the Kingdom of Sierra and the Sierran constitution has been selectively applied and incorporated into aspects of Hawaiian and Deseretian law.
The Crown is the foundation of the Sierran government as the de jure head of state. The head of government is the Prime Minister who is elected by the House of Commons, the lower house of Parliament. By convention, the Queen chooses a prime minister based on whomever is the likeliest to command the confidence of the House. In practice, the prime minister is the leader of the largest party or coalition in the House. The prime minister is the chief executive and may exercise the royal prerogatives associated with the Crown on the sovereign's behalf. They are empowered and responsible to undertake a wide range of duties which include but are not limited to: executing and enforcing federal law; appointing members of the Cabinet and at-large commissioned senators in the Senate; chairing the meetings of the Privy and Executive Councils, consulting and advising the Crown on the exercise of the royal prerogative; nominating officials and judges for appointment by the Crown; negotiating treaties and international agreements with foreign powers; conduct state visits; bestow national honors, grant pardons, commutes, or clemencies; oversee and command the Sierran Crown Armed Forces as the Supreme Field Marshal; proposing and introducing bills in the House; presiding over meetings in the Senate; drafting and planning the national agenda; and overseeing the national bureaucracy.
The Cabinet traditionally consists of members of the prime minister's party or coalition. Although the Cabinet is not constitutionally mentioned, the Cabinet ministries and the position of Cabinet ministers are statutorily established by Parliament. The Cabinet ministers each oversee a Cabinet ministry and are responsible to Parliament. Each ministry is responsible for a particular field of law or interest of the state (e.g. foreign relations, defense, finance, and education), and are further subdivided into departments, agencies, or bureaus. The Cabinet and its ministries are empowered to enact laws known as regulations or standards, which both have the same legal binding effect and enforceability of legislative statutes, but are ultimately subordinate to statutes and constitutional law.
The Parliament of Sierra meets at the Parliament Building on Bunker Hill in Porciúncula. It is composed of two houses: the Senate and the House of Commons. All bills passed by Parliament must receive royal assent by the Queen. Parliament is structured after a hybridized version of legislature which combines the British Westminster system and the Anglo-American federalist system. Both houses are relatively equal in power and importance. Parliament has the authority to, but not limited to: initiate and draft federally binding legislation; control power of the purse; declare war and make peace; approve treaties and international agreements; levy federal taxes and tariffs; regulate commerce between PSAs and with foreign nations, to raise and maintain military forces; establish courts and post offices; coin money; fix standards, weights, and measurements; investigate and audit the federal and judicial branches; impeach executive and judicial officials; and borrow money on the credit of the Kingdom of Sierra.
The Senate is the upper house of Parliament and is composed of 125 members, which are separated into two types: regular senators and commissioned senators. There are 74 regular senators who are popularly elected by the constituents of their respective PSAs. Regular senators are elected on six-year terms and the elections of regular senators are staggered based on the three classes. There are 50 commissioned senators, 37 of whom each represent one of Sierra's PSAs and 13 of whom are appointed by the Prime Minister to represent the Kingdom at-large. With the exception of the commissioned senators from San Joaquin and Santa Clara, as well as the 13 at-large commissioned senators, commissioned senators are appointed by their respective provincial government (either by the governor or the legislature) and their term of office is set by provincial statute, rather than federal statutes. The at-large commissioned senators function as leverage by the Prime Minister, who normally sits in the House, but is also considered a member of the Senate. Unlike the other senators, at-large commissioned senators' terms are entirely dependent on the Prime Minister's ability to maintain supply and confidence in the House. They are immediately dismissed of their duty and office upon the defeat or removal from office of their appointing prime minister, unless the successor (almost always from the same party or coalition) allows to sustain their position in the Senate. During caretaker governments, the seats for the at-large commissioned senator are vacant.
Sierran law comprises several sources of law including the Constitution, federal law (which consists of legislative statutes, federal regulations and standards, international treaties and agreements ratified by Parliament, case law established by the federal judiciary, and royal edicts issued by the Crown), CAS law (which consists of CAS constitutional law, Council executive directives, American Parliament legislation, and court decisions issued by the American Court of Justice), provincial, local, tribal, and territorial laws. Sierran law is based primarily on Anglo-American common law, which includes legal traditions, standards, procedures, and concepts derived ultimately from the English legal system. Under common law, the law is developed by judges in courts, who interpret and apply legislative statutes, precedent, and common sense to the facts of a case presented before them prior to rendering judgments which will become binding in future similar cases (stare decisis). However, Sierra has evolved into a complex system of law which has diverged substantially from Anglo-American law, incorporating elements and concepts from civil law systems, especially from Spanish and French law in certain areas of law, such as water law.
Parties and elections
Law enforcement and crime
Sierra is one of the three constituent countries of the Kingdom of Sierra. Sierra is a federal monarchy of 23 provinces, twelve unincorporated organized territories, one incorporated organized territory, two crown dependencies, and several uninhabited island possessions. These provinces and territories are further subdivided into counties, municipalities, parishes, and independent cities. Each province is considered a PSA, entitling them to representation in the House of Commons that is directly proportional to their population and three senators in the Senate (two regular senators and one commissioned senator).
Each province and territory maintains its own subnational government, constitutions, government officials, agencies, laws, courts, and taxation systems. They exercise a significant degree of autonomy over various matters of governance and fields of law based on protections from the Federal Constitution. Every province has a Lord or Lady Superintendent who serves as the head of state and the viceregal representative of the Queen-in-right of the province. The organized territories have their own equivalent and are headed by a Lord or Lady Proprietor. In addition, the provinces and organized territories have a governor who serves as the head of government. In the context of Sierran provinces, there are two main types of provincial-style governance: Anglo-American and Westminster. In provinces incorporated as an Anglo-American-styled province, the governor is an executive elected directly by the people and operates independently from the legislature. In the Westminster system, the governor is a member of the legislature and is elected by the legislature's members to serve as the executive.
Sierra also recognizes tribal sovereignty of Amerindian nations, establishing a limited form of autonomy for such entities. Tribal governments exercise home rule authority within their jurisdictions and deal directly with the federal government. Similar to provinces, federally recognized tribes may enact their own laws, elect their own officials, establish their own courts, and perform other functions. However, unlike provinces, the tribal sovereignty of Amerindian tribes are not guaranteed by the Constitution and instead, is ultimately derived from Parliament alone. Parliament has a responsibility and duty to protect the rights and provide the needs of tribal governments through enacting relevant laws and providing appropriate funding.
All territories and possessions of the Kingdom of Sierra are treated as territories under Federal Sierra. Both organized and unorganized unincorporated territories fall under the ultimate jurisdiction and authority of Parliament, while crown dependencies fall under the direct authority of the Crown, or more specifically, the Monarch. In all of these territories, the Charter is in full effect but the Constitution itself is not in full force. Citizens of these territories are not fully enfranchised. Its citizens may not participate in federal elections, pay federal income tax, or have access to certain services. The only exception to this is the Channel Islands, where the territory is an incorporated organized territory and the Constitution is in full force. However, like the other territories, the Channels is not legally recognized as a PSA and does not have voting representation in either house of Parliament.
Economy of Sierra
|Nominal GDP||$7.128 trillion (Q3 2020)|
|Real GDP growth||–4.8% (Q3 2020)|
|CPI inflation||1.9% (September 2020)|
|Employment-to-population ratio||69.9% (September 2020)|
|Unemployment||9.3% (September 2020)|
|Labor force participation rate||65.4% (September 2020)|
|Total public debt||$5.59 trillion (78.4% of GDP) (September 2020)|
|Household net worth||$48.724 trillion (Q3 2020)|
Sierra has the fourth largest economy in the world in both terms of nominal GDP and GDP by purchasing power parity. It is a mixed economy which operates under the Anglo-Saxon model with relatively low levels of regulation, although Sierra's welfare state and public sector services have been steadily expanding since the late 1900s. The government controls and influences key segments of sectors, with majority ownership of railway, electricity, nuclear power, and health care. It is the world's third largest importer and exporter, and currently operates at a trade deficit of $155.4 billion. Its largest trading partners are China, the United Commonwealth, Japan, Brazoria, and Germany. It is a member of the Anglo-American single market and it accounted for 40% of the Amerozone.
Its largest exports are computers, electronic products, chemicals, electrical equipment and machinery, aircraft, automobiles, petroleum, agricultural products such as tree nuts and leafy vegetables, diamonds, and medical equipment. Its largest imports are crude oil, fossil fuels, automobiles, cell phones, computers and electronic products, integrated circuits, textiles, manufactured goods, and agricultural products. Sierra was historically an agrarian-based economy, but has since diversified and achieved postindustrial status. Its contemporary dominant sectors are finance, banking, and services, such as media, communications, information, and hospitality, as well as science and technology, pharmaceuticals, health care, and entertainment. Despite the decline in manufacturing in Sierra, it remains an important sector, with important industries in steel, aircraft manufacturing, automobile manufacturing, computers and electronic goods, biochemicals, pharmaceutical products, and printing equipment.
Its monetary policy is determined by the Royal Monetary Authority of Sierra, which also functions as Sierra's central bank. In 2019, Sierra was the third largest recipient of foreign direct investment among OECD countries at $134 billion, and in the same year, Sierran companies invested $278 billion, making Sierra the largest outward direct investor in the OCED. As a developed country with a high-income economy, it is one of the most industrialized nations in the OECD.
Sierra ranks the second highest in nominal GDP per capita and the fourth highest in GDP per capita at PPP. It has the second highest household net worth in the world, valuing over $48 trillion. The K.S. dollar is one of the world's primary reserve currencies. The Sierran dollar is also the official currency of Sierra's territories, as well as the independent countries of El Salvador, Palau, the Marshall Islands, and the Federated States of Micronesia. It holds the second largest reserves and holdings of gold, holding over 5,550 metric tons of gold, most of which are stored in the Sacramento Bullion Depository in Tahoe.
Inflation has generally been between 2–3%, which has contributed to steady, gradual decline in value for the Sierran dollar. Inflation is controlled by the Royal Monetary Authority, which has historically targeted an inflation rate at approximately 3%. The inflation rate is 1.9% as of September 2020. The debt-to-GDP ratio in Sierra has gradually risen, which currently stands at 78.4%, reflecting Sierra's increased government spending on social programs such as health care, education, and infrastructure.
Of the world's 500 largest stock-market-listed companies measured by revenue, 125 are headquartered in Sierra. 60 major Sierra-based companies are included in the STAR 60, one of the stock market indices operated by the Porciúncula Stock Exchange, which is based in Porciúncula, the financial capital and center of Sierra. Prominent companies include Apple, Alphabet (Google), Disney, Chevron, Hewlett-Packard, Media Corporation, Cabrillo, Wells Fargo, Intel, Facebook, Cisco, and Tesla.
Agriculture was historically the most important and dominant industry to the Sierran economy. Despite Sierra achieving postindustrial status, agriculture remains a highly profitable, multi-billion dollar industry with its main exports being almonds, avocados, dates, figs, grapes, oranges, rice, strawberries, tomatoes, wheat, and cannabis. The Central Valley is primary center for all Sierran agricultural products with its fertile flatland and favorable weather conditions. The other major agricultural "valley" in Sierra is the Imperial Valley, a dry and sandy region that was converted into irrigated farmlands during the mid-20th century. The Imperial Valley is responsible for over half of the agricultural exports of certain vegetables and fruits during the winter months in North America. Salinas Valley is another major productive region for agriculture. Napa Valley is world renowned for its wine industry and viticulture, and is the top producer in grape products in the Western Hemisphere. Beef, chicken, and turkey are among the livestock and game products that Sierra exports. The fishing industry is also particularly profitable with the majority of Sierra's exports heading to China, Japan, and Tondo. Milk is Sierra's top dairy product followed by cheese, butter, yogurt, and whey. Sierra's agriculture is heavily dependent on the nation's vast irrigation system and groundwater supply.
Income, poverty, and wealth
The Sierran labor force is highly skilled and consisted of 57 million people in 2019. The leading field of employment is the government, which employs 6.93 million people. The largest private sector is health care and human services, with 6.3 million people. More than a third of Sierran workers are unionized. Before 2020, Sierra was one of the few remaining OECD countries which did not legally guarantee paternal leave, paid vacation, or sick leave at the federal level. Since the COVID-19 pandemic, federal legislation has mandated public and private employers to provide these forms of employment benefits to their workers. All Sierran citizens are also enrolled in either a public or private health insurance plan. Prior to 2020, health insurance and socialized medicine was handled predominantly by the PSAs. Following nationalization of Sierra's health care system, Sierra has adopted a universal health care under one unified single-payer system.
The federal minimum wage is $7.25, which is the lowest wage which can be set by any employer in Sierra. Provincial and local minimum wages range between the federally mandated wage to as high as $20, although the average is $12. Overtime is paid at time-and-a-half for non-exempt workers and employees for all hours work in excess of 40 hours in a workweek or 8 hours in a workday. Time-and-a-half must also be paid for workers who work on federal holidays. Doubled pay is paid to non-exempt workers who work in excess of 12 hours in a workday, as well as seven or more consecutive workdays. The federal government also mandates a minimum shift differential pay of $1 on top of base pay for non-exempt workers who work during the weekends, or during graveyard shift (defined as any shift where more than 3 scheduled hours are between 9 PM and 6 AM).
The unemployment rate as of September 2020 is 9.3%. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, the national unemployment rate was 1.7%. It has the fifth highest median gross household income in the world, at $44,371 in 2013. The federal government offers unemployment benefits and services to eligible K.S. citizens and authorized foreign workers, which is further supplemented by provincial, state, or areal unemployment insurance programs.
Approximately 17% of Sierrans live below the relative poverty line, which the Ministry of Finance defines as $21,000 for household incomes.
Science and technology
Responsibility for public education falls primarily on the provincial and local governments. The federal government oversees matters pertaining to education through the Ministry of Education, which enforces laws and regulations surrounding education in Sierra. The Ministry financially supports the educational systems across Sierra through grants. In most PSAs, children are required to attends school between the ages of 5 or 6 and 17 or 18. Students have the option to choose between public schools, private schools, homeschooling, or other approved arrangements.
Public education is divided into three levels: elementary school, middle school, and high school, which are further divided into educational stages known as grades. Generally, students start elementary school in kindergarten and complete it by the sixth grade (under the 6–3–4 or 6–4–3 systems, students complete it by the fifth grade). Students progress from elementary school to middle school, which usually includes two grades (seventh and eighth). High school is the final stage of compulsory public education, and typically consists of four grades, with the twelfth grade as the final year. Upon completing high school, students receive their diploma and may optionally continue their academic pursuits by entering into a community college, a four-year university, or vocational training. After undergraduate education has been completed, students may finish their education by attending a graduate or professional school.
For Sierrans over the age of 25, 87.5% graduated from high school, 78.2% attended some college, 54.8% earned a bachelor's degree, and 23% earned graduate degrees. Free tuition in higher education is not guaranteed nor provided by the Sierran federal government and for that reason, the application, selection, and attendance of college has been considered a crucial hallmark in Sierran culture. The Sierran government provides student loans, grants, and waivers since the Affordable Education Act of 1916. Some provinces pay for students of lower-income backgrounds to attend colleges and scholarships are a popular means by the general public to cover some if not all of the costs of college. The literacy rate of Sierra is 99.7% and another 73% of Sierrans have proficient literacy in (an) additional language(s). There are three national public secondary education systems: the University of Sierra, the Sierra National University, and Sierra Community Colleges, which collectively form the world's largest system of universities and colleges, and includes some of the most prestigious and competitive campuses in the world.
In 2017, the Ministry of Education reported that over 21.3 million students were enrolled in schools from kindergarten through graduate schools. It also included individuals who were enrolled in vocational training, apprenticeship, independent study, or homeschool. Of those enrolled in elementary and secondary schools, 4.4 million were enrolled in private schools (both secular and parochial). Of those enrolled in colleges, universities, and graduate schools, 4.1 million were enrolled in private schools. During the 2017–18 academic year, about 87% of high school seniors graduated and received their high school diploma. The high school dropout rate nationwide currently stands at 8.8%, with the remaining percentage unaccounted for including fifth year seniors held back (super seniors) and students enrolled in special education.
According to a report by the OCED, Sierra spent $16,789 per student in primary and secondary education ($258.56 billion), nearly double the average for all OCED nations (at roughly $8,500), and the third highest amount spent per student in the world, trailing behind Switzerland, Kalmar Union, and Luxembourg. For postsecondary students, Sierra spent more than $15,000 per student, which was roughly $3,000 higher than the OCED average, and was only surpassed by the Northeast Union, Switzerland, and the United Commonwealth by that metric. Despite these figures, Sierra ranks 80th place in the world in the percentage of nominal GDP spent on education, which was about 5.1% in 2017, placing it on par with the United Kingdom and Korea. In addition, the amount it spends per student for postsecondary education is lower than students in primary and secondary education. Increased spending for higher education has been an important issue in Sierran politics due to rising costs in tuition and student loan debt.
PAPE test scores among Sierran students average significantly higher than other developed nations, scoring on par with Scandinavia and East Asia in mathematics, science, and writing. Sierra regularly places in the Top 10 for mathematics, natural science, advanced physics, and reading. Similar rankings have been observed for other internationally standardized tests. ESL learners studying in Sierra have also scored higher than the average for international English examinations, including the International Assessment for Learners of the English Language (IALEL). Despite the high national averages, there is a level of discrepancy between provinces such as Imperial and San Joaquin, which consistently ranks below Sierra's average and the world's average for scores on PAPE and similar tests.
The Sierran health care system operates under a hybrid system combining universal government-funded public health care with private providers. It is a matter dealt primarily by the provinces, states, and areas of Sierra, where each PSA maintains its own health care systems and standards, although the federal government's involvement has expanded since the Constitution of Sierra declared health care to be a fundamental right in 1994 and several landmark Supreme Court decisions affirmed health care as one of the federal government's priorities and domain. According to the World Health Organization, Sierra spent $6,974 on health care per capita, and 11.3% on health care as a percentage of its GDP in 2017. Of the 11.1%, government health expenditure accounted for 9.3%, while out-of-pocket expenditure as a proportion of the 2017 health expenditure was 16%.
Sierra's health care system is world renowned in terms of quality of care and affordability, especially for palliative and end-of-life care, but has been criticized for its relatively long wait times. In 2018, Sierra had one of the world's longest life expectancies, with an average of 81.31 years at birth for both men and women. It is home to one of the world's largest communities of centenarians and one of the identified global blue zones (Loma Linda, Inland Empire). In 2017, Sierra had high prevalence or near-high prevalence in motor vehicle accidents, obesity, heart and lung disease, sexually transmitted infections, injuries, adolescent pregnancies, and homicides, especially in the Styxie and Eastern Sierra. Rates of preventable hospitalizations and diseases are often cited as major sources of financial costs in nation's health care system.
Marriage, funeral, and other traditions
Television and radio
Dining etiquette and experience
Public holidays and celebrations
Coat of arms
|Pacific Ocean • Channel Islands||Pacific Ocean • Mexico||Mexico|