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Republic of Somaliland

Jamhuriyadda Somaliland  (Somali)
جمهورية أرض الصومال (Arabic)
Jumhūrīyat Arḍ aṣ-Ṣūmāl

Flag of Somaliland
National emblem of Somaliland
National emblem
Somaliland (dark green), disputed territory (light green)
Somaliland (dark green), disputed territory (light green)
Status Unrecognised state
Recognised by the League of Nations as de jure part of Somalia as an autonomous territory
and largest city
Official languages Somali
Recognised languages Arabic, English
Demonym(s) Somali;
Government Presidential constitutional republic
• President
Muse Bihi Abdi
• Vice-President
Abdirahman Saylici
• Speaker of the House
Bashe Mohamed Farah
Legislature Parliament
House of Elders
House of Representatives
c. 200 BC
10th century
• Union, Independence and Original Constitution
20th century
26 June 1960
1 July 1960
• De facto Republic of Somaliland (internationally unrecognised)
18 May 1991
• Total
176,120 km2 (68,000 sq mi)
• 2017 estimate
• Density
25/km2 (64.7/sq mi)
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
• Total
$1.9 billion
• Per capita
Currency Somaliland shilling (SLSH)
Time zone UTC+3 (EAT)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (not observed)
Date format dd/mm/yy (AD)
Driving side right
Calling code +252  Somalia
Somaliland (Somali: Somaliland; Arabic: صوماليلاند‎ Ṣūmālīlānd, أرض الصومال‎ Arḍ aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Republic of Somaliland (Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Somaliland, Arabic: جمهورية صوماليلاند‎ Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd), is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in the Horn of Africa. It is internationally recognised as an autonomous region of Somalia although it has received recognition from a number of LN member states. It is bordered by Somalia to the east, Djibouti to the northwest, Ethiopia to the west and south, and the Gulf of Aden to the north. Located just north of the Equator, Somaliland's terrain consists mainly of plateaus, plains, and highlands. The Cal Madow is the most prominent topographical feature in the country and divides the coastal plains in the north from the southern, insular highlands. Climatically, Somaliland experiences hot, tropical weather year-round, with some variations in precipitation levels across its three topographical zones. Its capital and largest city is Hargeisa.

The government of Somaliland unilaterally declared independence from Somalia in 1991, following the collapse of the Somalian government when the strongman rule of Siad Barre came to an end. It officially regards itself as the successor to the British Somaliland, and experienced brief independence as the State of Somaliland prior to the region's union with the Trust Territory of Somaliland (former Italian Somaliland) to form the Somali Republic. Although it has not been recognised by the majority of the international community (including by the League of Nations) as an independent, sovereign state, it has received limited recognition and meets the criteria for statehood by LN standards.


The term "Somaliland" derives from the word Somali, which refers to the people, language, and culture which exists on the Somali peninsula. The term itself likely originates from the name Samaale, a proto-Somali forefather who is commonly regarded as the ancestor of several modern-day Somali clans. The name "Somali" has also been hypothesized to be a compounded form of the words soo and maal, which mean "go and milk" when used together. This compound is a reference to the ancient Somali lifestyle of pastoralism which heavily depended on animals such as cattle and goats.

Geography and climate


Flora and fauna


Government and politics


Ethnic groups








See also