Spain

From Constructed Worlds
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Spanish Republic

República Española (es)
Flag of
Flag
Coat of arms of
Coat of arms
Motto: Pius Ultra
(Further Beyond)
Anthem: La Marcha de Española
(March of the Spanish)
Location of Spain
Location of Spain
Capital Madrid
Largest city Barcelona
Official languages Spanish (national)
Recognized languages Catalan (regional)
Basque (regional)
Occitan (regional)
French (regional)
Demonym(s) Spanish
Government Federal Parliamentary Republic
• President
Santiago Morales (PSD)
Gabriel Perez (PSD)
Legislature Congreso Nacional
Federal Senate
Congress of Deputies
History
• Spanish Unification
20th January 1479
• First Constitution
19th March 1812
• Current Constitution
October 3rd, 2000
Population
• 2020 estimate
44,078,802
GDP (PPP) 2018 estimate
• Total
$2.01 trillion
• Per capita
$45,000
HDI (2020) 0.889
very high
Currency TBD
Time zone Central European Time and Western European Time
Driving side right

Spain (Spanish: España), officially the Third Spanish Republic (Spanish: Tercera República Española), is a country located in Southwestern Europe with some territory across the Strait of Gibraltar and the Atlantic Ocean. Its continental territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagos: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. Spain also owns North African enclaves, which all share a border with Morocco, making Spain the only country in Europe too share a physical border with an African nation. Spain borders Portugal to the east and France and Andorra to the northwest. Spain also shares a border with the United Kingdom through Gibraltar, however the Spanish government recognizes Gibraltar as apart of Spain.

Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek, Celtic and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Sp(a)n or Spania. At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established relatively independent realms in its western provinces. One of them, the Visigoths, would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including the Byzantine province of Spania, into the Visigothic Kingdom.

In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom was conquered by the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate. The Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula (al-Andalus) soon became autonomous from Baghdad. The handful of small Christian pockets in the north left out of Muslim rule, along the presence of the Carolingian Empire near the Pyreneean range, would eventually led to the emergence of the Christian kingdoms of León, Castile, Aragon, Portugal and Navarre. Along seven centuries, an intermittent southwards expansion of the latter kingdoms (metahistorically dubbed as a reconquest: the Reconquista) took place, culminating with the Christian seizure of the last Muslim polity (the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada) in 1492, the same year Christopher Columbus arrived in the New World. A process of political conglomeration among the Christian kingdoms also ensued, and the late 15th-century saw the dynastic union of Castile and Aragon under the Catholic Monarchs, sometimes considered to be the point of emergence of Spain as unified country. The Conquest of Navarre occurred in 1512, while the Kingdom of Portugal was also ruled by the Hapsburg Dynasty between 1580 and 1640.

In the early modern period, Spain ruled one of the largest empires in history which was also one of the first global empires in the world. However, after its short occupation by France during the Napoleonic Wars, Spanish global power and relevance would rapidly disappear. After the lose of its last colonial holdings during the Spanish–American War, Spain would go through rapid changes, eventually resulting in the creation of the Second Spanish Republic. After the conclusion of the Spanish Civil War, Spain would become a Landonist totalitarian state. After the Spanish Revolution, which was apart of the greater Revolutions of 2000, Spain would transition back into a democracy.

Spain is a federal republic and a parliamentary democracy. The President of Spain is the head of state and is granted limited executive powers. The Prime Minister of Spain is the head of government and is the de facto leader of the nation. The national legislature, known as Congreso Nacional, is composed of two houses: the Federal Senate and the Congress of Deputies. Both houses are in charge of creating federal legislation, however the latter is view as the most important of the two, as the Prime Minister and their Cabinet are responsible to that house. The national judiciary is the National Court of Spain, which is in charge of the upholding and protection of the Spanish Constitution. Spain is considered a highly developed nation and has a GDP of $2.01 trillion. Spain is a member of the European Community, joining the organization following the Revolutions of 2000.

History[edit]

Prehistory and pre-Roman peoples[edit]

Celtic castro in Galicia

Archaeological research at Atapuerca indicates the Iberian Peninsula was populated by hominids 1.2 million years ago. In Atapuerca fossils have been found of the earliest known hominins in Europe, the Homo antecessor. Modern humans first arrived in Iberia, from the north on foot, about 35,000 years ago. Typical Aurignacian items were found in Cantabria (Morín, El Pendo, El Castillo), the Basque Country (Santimamiñe) and Catalonia. The radiocarbon datations give the following dates: 32,425 and 29,515 BP. The best known artefacts of these prehistoric human settlements are the famous paintings in the Altamira cave of Cantabria in northern Iberia, which were created from 35,600 to 13,500 BCE by Cro-Magnon. Archaeological and genetic evidence suggests that the Iberian Peninsula acted as one of several major refugia from which northern Europe was repopulated following the end of the last ice age.

The largest groups inhabiting the Iberian Peninsula before the Roman conquest were the Iberians and the Celts. The Iberians inhabited the Mediterranean side of the peninsula, from the northeast to the southeast. The Celts inhabited much of the inner and Atlantic sides of the peninsula, from the northwest to the southwest. Basques occupied the western area of the Pyrenees mountain range and adjacent areas, the Phoenician-influenced Tartessians culture flourished in the southwest and the Lusitanians and Vettones occupied areas in the central west. A number of cities were founded along the coast by Phoenicians, and trading outposts and colonies were established by Greeks in the East. Eventually, Phoenician-Carthaginians expanded inland towards the meseta; however, due to the bellicose inland tribes, the Carthaginians got settled in the coasts of the Iberian Peninsula.

Rome and the Visigoths[edit]

During the Second Punic War, roughly between 210 and 205 BC the expanding Roman Republic captured Carthaginian trading colonies along the Mediterranean coast. Although it took the Romans nearly two centuries to complete the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, they retained control of it for over six centuries. Roman rule was bound together by law, language, and the Roman road.

The cultures of the Celtic and Iberian populations were gradually Romanised (Latinised) at different rates depending on what part of Hispania they lived in, with local leaders being admitted into the Roman aristocratic class. The latifundia (sing., latifundium), large estates controlled by the aristocracy, were superimposed on the existing Iberian landholding system. Hispania served as a granary for the Roman market, and its harbours exported gold, wool, olive oil, and wine. Agricultural production increased with the introduction of irrigation projects, some of which remain in use. Emperors {{w|Hadrian]], Trajan, Theodosius I, and the philosopher Seneca were born in Hispania. The poets Martial, Quintilian and Lucan were also born in Hispania. Christianity was introduced into Hispania in the 1st century AD and it became popular in the cities in the 2nd century AD.

The weakening of the Western Roman Empire's jurisdiction in Hispania began in 409, when the Germanic Suebi and Vandals, together with the Sarmatian Alans entered the peninsula at the invitation of a Roman usurper. These tribes had crossed the Rhine in early 407 and ravaged Gaul. The Suebi established a kingdom in what is today modern Galicia and northern Portugal whereas the Vandals established themselves in southern Spain by 420 before crossing over to North Africa in 429 and taking Carthage in 439. As the western empire disintegrated, the social and economic base became greatly simplified: but even in modified form, the successor regimes maintained many of the institutions and laws of the late empire, including Christianity and assimilation to the evolving Roman culture.

The Byzantines established an occidental province, Spania, in the south, with the intention of reviving Roman rule throughout Iberia. Eventually, however, Hispania was reunited under Visigothic rule. These Visigoths, or Western Goths, after sacking Rome under the leadership of Alaric (410), turned towards the Iberian Peninsula, with Athaulf for their leader, and occupied the northeastern portion. Wallia extended his rule over most of the peninsula, keeping the Suebians shut up in Galicia. Theodoric I took part, with the Romans and Franks, in the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains, where Attila was routed. Euric (466), who put an end to the last remnants of Roman power in the peninsula, may be considered the first monarch of Spain, though the Suebians still maintained their independence in Galicia. Euric was also the first king to give written laws to the Visigoths. In the following reigns the Catholic kings of France assumed the role of protectors of the Hispano-Roman Catholics against the Arianism of the Visigoths, and in the wars which ensued Alaric II and Amalaric lost their lives.

Athanagild, having risen against King Agila, called in the Byzantines and, in payment for the succor they gave him, ceded to them the maritime places of the southeast (554). Liuvigild restored the political unity of the peninsula, subduing the Suebians, but the religious divisions of the country, reaching even the royal family, brought on a civil war. St. Hermengild, the king's son, putting himself at the head of the Catholics, was defeated and taken prisoner, and suffered martyrdom for rejecting communion with the Arians. Recared, son of Liuvigild and brother of St. Hermengild, added religious unity to the political unity achieved by his father, accepting the Catholic faith in the Third Council of Toledo (589). The religious unity established by this council was the basis of that fusion of Goths with Hispano-Romans which produced the Spanish nation. Sisebut and Suintila completed the expulsion of the Byzantines from Spain.

Intermarriage between Visigoths and Hispano-Romans was prohibited, though in practice it could not be entirely prevented and was eventually legalised by Liuvigild. The Spanish-Gothic scholars such as Braulio of Zaragoza and Isidore of Seville played an important role in keeping the classical Greek and Roman culture. Isidore was one of the most influential clerics and philosophers in the Middle Ages in Europe, and his theories were also vital to the conversion of the Visigothic Kingdom from an Arian domain to a Catholic one in the Councils of Toledo. Isidore created the first western encyclopedia which had a huge impact during the Middle Ages.

Spanish Empire[edit]

In 1469, the crowns of the Christian kingdoms of Castile and Aragon were united by the marriage of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon. 1478 commenced the completion of the conquest of the Canary Islands and in 1492, the combined forces of Castile and Aragon captured the Emirate of Granada from its last ruler Muhammad XII, ending the last remnant of a 781-year presence of Islamic rule in Iberia. That same year, Spain's Jews were ordered to convert to Catholicism or face expulsion from Spanish territories during the Spanish Inquisition. As many as 200,000 Jews were expelled from Spain. This was followed by expulsions in 1493 in Aragonese Sicily and Portugal in 1497. The Treaty of Granada guaranteed religious tolerance towards Muslims, for a few years before Islam was outlawed in 1502 in the Kingdom of Castile and 1527 in the Kingdom of Aragon, leading to Spain's Muslim population becoming nominally Christian Moriscos. A few decades after the Morisco rebellion of Granada known as the War of the Alpujarras, a significant proportion of Spain's formerly-Muslim population was expelled, settling primarily in North Africa.

The year 1492 also marked the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the New World, during a voyage funded by Isabella. Columbus's first voyage crossed the Atlantic and reached the Caribbean Islands, beginning the European exploration and conquest of the Americas, although Columbus remained convinced that he had reached the Orient. Large numbers of indigenous Americans died in battle against the Spaniards during the conquest, while others died from various other causes. Some scholars consider the initial period of the Spanish conquest— from Columbus's first landing in the Bahamas until the middle of the sixteenth century—as marking the most egregious case of genocide in the history of mankind.The death toll may have reached some 70 million indigenous people (out of 80 million) in this period, as diseases such as smallpox, measles, influenza, and typhus, brought to the Americas by the conquest, decimated the pre-Columbian population.

Depiction of the 1519 meeting of conquistador Hernán Cortés and his counselor woman La Malinche with Aztec emperor Moctezuma II in Tenochtitlan

The colonisation of the Americas started with conquistadores like Hernán Cortés and Francisco Pizarro. Miscegenation was the rule between the native and the Spanish cultures and people. Juan Sebastian Elcano completed the first voyage around the world in human history, the Magellan-Elcano circumnavigation. Florida was colonised by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés when he founded St. Augustine, Florida and then defeated an attempt led by the French Captain Jean Ribault to establish a French foothold in Spanish Florida territory. St. Augustine became a strategic defensive base for Spanish ships full of gold and silver sailing to Spain. Andrés de Urdaneta discovered the tornaviaje or return route from Tondo to Mexico, making possible the Manila galleon trading route. The Spanish once again encountered Islam, but this time in Southeast Asia and in order to incorporate Tondo, Spanish expeditions organised from newly Christianised Mexico had invaded the Tondolese territories of the Sultanate of Brunei. The Spanish considered the war with the Muslims of Brunei and Tondo, a repeat of the Reconquista. The Spanish explorer Blas Ruiz intervened in Cambodia's succession and installed Crown Prince Barom Reachea II as puppet.

As Renaissance New Monarchs, Isabella and Ferdinand centralized royal power at the expense of local nobility, and the word España, whose root is the ancient name Hispania, began to be commonly used to designate the whole of the two kingdoms. With their wide-ranging political, legal, religious and military reforms, Spain emerged as the first world power. The death of their son Prince John caused the Crown to pass to Charles I (the Emperor Charles V), son of Juana la Loca.

The unification of the crowns of Aragon and Castile by the marriage of their sovereigns laid the basis for modern Spain and the Spanish Empire, although each kingdom of Spain remained a separate country socially, politically, legally, and in currency and language.

María Pacheco, last leader of the Revolt of the Comuneros, one of the first modern revolutions

There were two big revolts against the new Habsburg monarch and the more authoritarian and imperial-style crown: Revolt of the Comuneros in Castile and Revolt of the Brotherhoods in Majorca and Valencia. After years of combat, Comuneros Juan López de Padilla, Juan Bravo and Francisco Maldonado were executed and María Pacheco went into exile. Germana de Foix also finished with the revolt in the Mediterranean.

Habsburg Spain was one of the leading world powers throughout the 16th century and most of the 17th century, a position reinforced by trade and wealth from colonial possessions and became the world's leading maritime power. It reached its apogee during the reigns of the first two Spanish HabsburgsCharles I (1516–1556) and Philip II (1556–1598). This period saw the Italian Wars, the Schmalkaldic War, the Dutch Revolt, the War of the Portuguese Succession, clashes with the Ottomans, intervention in the French Wars of Religion and the Anglo-Spanish War.

Anachronous map of the Spanish Empire

Through exploration and conquest or royal marriage alliances and inheritance, the Spanish Empire expanded to include vast areas in the Americas, islands in the Asia-Pacific area, areas of Italy, cities in Northern Africa, as well as parts of what are now France, Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands. The first circumnavigation of the world was carried out in 1519–1521. It was the first empire on which it was said that the sun never set. This was an Age of Discovery, with daring explorations by sea and by land, the opening-up of new trade routes across oceans, conquests and the beginnings of European colonialism. Spanish explorers brought back precious metals, spices, luxuries, and previously unknown plants, and played a leading part in transforming the European understanding of the globe. The cultural efflorescence witnessed during this period is now referred to as the Spanish Golden Age. The expansion of the empire caused immense upheaval in the Americas as the collapse of societies and empires and new diseases from Europe devastated American indigenous populations. The rise of Humanism, the Counter-Reformation and new geographical discoveries and conquests raised issues that were addressed by the intellectual movement now known as the School of Salamanca, which developed the first modern theories of what are now known as international law and human rights. Juan Luis Vives was another prominent humanist during this period.

Following the Peace of Westphalia, major Catholic countries like Spain, Poland and the Holy Roman Empire lost their influence and the Habsburg supremacy was curtailed.

Spain's 16th century maritime supremacy was demonstrated by the victory over the Ottomans at Lepanto in 1571, and then after the setback of the Spanish Armada in 1588, in a series of victories against England in the Anglo-Spanish War of 1585–1604. However, during the middle decades of the 17th century Spain's maritime power went into a long decline with mounting defeats against the United Provinces and then England; that by the 1660s it was struggling grimly to defend its overseas possessions from pirates and privateers.

The Protestant Reformation dragged the kingdom ever more deeply into the mire of religiously charged wars. The result was a country forced into ever expanding military efforts across Europe and in the Mediterranean. By the middle decades of a war- and plague-ridden 17th-century Europe, the Spanish Habsburgs had enmeshed the country in continent-wide religious-political conflicts. These conflicts drained it of resources and undermined the economy generally. Spain managed to hold on to most of the scattered Habsburg empire, and help the imperial forces of the Holy Roman Empire reverse a large part of the advances made by Protestant forces, but it was finally forced to recognize the separation of Portugal and the United Provinces, and eventually suffered some serious military reverses to France in the latter stages of the immensely destructive, Europe-wide Thirty Years' War. In the latter half of the 17th century, Spain went into a gradual decline, during which it surrendered several small territories to France and England; however, it maintained and enlarged its vast overseas empire, which remained intact until the beginning of the 19th century.

The family of Philip V. During the Enlightenment in Spain a new royal family reigned, the House of Bourbon.

The decline culminated in a controversy over succession to the throne which consumed the first years of the 18th century. The War of the Spanish Succession was a wide-ranging international conflict combined with a civil war, and was to cost the kingdom its European possessions and its position as one of the leading powers on the Continent. During this war, a new dynasty originating in France, the Bourbons, was installed. Long united only by the Crown, a true Spanish state was established when the first Bourbon king, Philip V, united the crowns of Castile and Aragon into a single state, abolishing many of the old regional privileges and laws.

The 18th century saw a gradual recovery and an increase in prosperity through much of the empire. The new Bourbon monarchy drew on the French system of modernizing the administration and the economy. Enlightenment ideas began to gain ground among some of the kingdom's elite and monarchy. Bourbon reformers created formal disciplined militias across the Atlantic. Spain needed every hand it could take during the seemingly endless wars of the eighteenth century—the Spanish War of Succession or Queen Anne's War (1702–13), the War of Jenkins' Ear (1739–42) which became the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48), the Seven Years' War (1756–63) and the Anglo-Spanish War (1779–83)—and its new disciplined militias served around the Atlantic as needed.

Liberalism and nation state[edit]

In 1793, Spain went to war against the revolutionary new French Republic as a member of the first Coalition. The subsequent War of the Pyrenees polarized the country in a reaction against the gallicised elites and following defeat in the field, peace was made with France in 1795 at the Peace of Basel in which Spain lost control over two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola. The Prime Minister, Manuel Godoy, then ensured that Spain allied herself with France in the brief War of the Third Coalition which ended with the British naval victory at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. In 1807, a secret treaty between Napoleon and the unpopular prime minister led to a new declaration of war against Britain and Portugal. Napoleon's troops entered the country to invade Portugal but instead occupied Spain's major fortresses. The Spanish king abdicated in favor of Napoleon's brother, Joseph Bonaparte.

Joseph Bonaparte was seen as a puppet monarch and was regarded with scorn by the Spanish. The 2 May 1808 revolt was one of many nationalist uprisings across the country against the Bonapartist regime. These revolts marked the beginning of a devastating war of independence against the Napoleonic regime. The most celebrated battles of this war were those of Bruch, in the highlands of Montserrat, in which the Catalan peasantry routed a French army; Bailén, where Castaños, at the head of the army of Andalusia, defeated Dupont; and the sieges of Zaragoza and Girona, which were worthy of the ancient Spaniards of Saguntum and Numantia.

Napoleon was forced to intervene personally, defeating several Spanish armies and forcing a British army to retreat. However, further military action by Spanish armies, guerrillas and Wellington's British-Portuguese forces, combined with Napoleon's disastrous invasion of Russia, led to the ousting of the French imperial armies from Spain in 1814, and the return of King Ferdinand VII.

Execution of Torrijos and his men in 1831. Ferdinand VII took repressive measures against the liberal forces in his country.

During the war, in 1810, a revolutionary body, the Cortes of Cádiz, was assembled to co-ordinate the effort against the Bonapartist regime and to prepare a constitution. Cortes of Cádiz (1812) was the first parliament of Spain with sovereign power. In 1812, a constitution for universal representation under a constitutional monarchy was declared, but after the fall of the Bonapartist regime, Ferdinand VII dismissed the Cortes Generales and was determined to rule as an absolute monarch. These events foreshadowed the conflict between conservatives and liberals in the 19th and early 20th centuries.

Spain's conquest by France benefited Latin American anti-colonialists who resented the Imperial Spanish government's policies that favoured Spanish-born citizens (Peninsulars) over those born overseas (Criollos) and demanded retroversion of the sovereignty to the people. Starting in 1809 Spain's American colonies began a series of revolutions and declared independence, leading to the Spanish American wars of independence that ended Spanish control over its mainland colonies in the Americas. King Ferdinand VII's attempt to re-assert control proved futile as he faced opposition not only in the colonies but also in Spain and army revolts followed, led by liberal officers. By the end of 1826, the only American colonies Spain held were Cuba and Puerto Rico.

The Napoleonic War left Spain economically ruined, deeply divided and politically unstable. In the 1830s and 1840s, Carlism (a reactionary legitimist movement supportive of the branch issued from Carlos María Isidro of Bourbon, younger brother of Ferdinand VII), fought against the cristinos or isabelinos (supportive of Queen Isabella II, daughter of Ferdinand VII) in the Carlist Wars. Isabelline forces prevailed, but the conflict between progressives and moderates ended in a weak early constitutional period. After the Glorious Revolution of 1868 and the short-lived First Spanish Republic, the latter yielded to a stable monarchic period, the Restoration, a rigid bipartisan regime fueled up by the turnismo (the prearranged rotation of government control between liberals and conservatives) and the form of political representation at the countryside (based on clientelism).

In the late 19th century nationalist movements arose in Tondo and Cuba. In 1898, Cuban and Tondolese rebels began raising up against Spanish rule and eventually a coalition between the United Commonwealth, Sierra, Brazoria, and the Northeastern Union would intervene, resulting in the Spanish-American War. The war was fought in the spring and summer of 1898 and resulted in Spain losing the last of its once vast colonial empire outside of North Africa. El Desastre (the Disaster), as the war became known in Spain, gave added impetus to the Generation of '98 who were conducting an analysis of the country.

Although the period around the turn of the century was one of increasing prosperity, the 20th century brought little social peace; Spain played a minor part in the scramble for Africa, with the colonization of Western Sahara, Spanish Morocco and Equatorial Guinea. It remained neutral during the Second Franco-German War. The heavy losses suffered during the Rif War in Morocco brought discredit to the government and undermined the monarchy.

Industrialization, the development of rail-ways and incipient capitalism developed in several areas of the country, particularly in Barcelona, as well as Labor movement and socialist and landonist ideas. The 1888 Barcelona Universal Exposition and the 1870 Barcelona Labor Congress are good examples of this. In 1879, Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, a precursor to the Spanish Landonist Worker's Party is founded. Linked trade union to this party, Unión General de Trabajadores, was founded in 1888. In the anarcho-landonist trend of the labor movement in Spain, Confederación Nacional del Trabajo was founded in 1910 and Federación Anarquista Ibérica in 1927.

Catalanism and vasquism, alongside other nationalisms and regionalisms in Spain, arose in that period, being the Basque Nationalist Party formed in 1895 and Regionalist League of Catalonia in 1901.

Political corruption and repression weakened the democratic system of the constitutional monarchy of a two-parties system. The Tragic Week (Spain) events and repression examples the social instability of the time.

The La Canadiense strike in 1919 led to the first law limiting the working day to eight hours.

Arrested miners during the Asturian miners' strike of 1934 in Brañosera

After a period of dictatorship during the governments of Generals {{w|Miguel Primo de Rivera]], Dámaso Berenguer, and Admiral Aznar-Cabañas (1923–1931), the first elections since 1923, largely understood as a plebiscite on Monarchy, took place: the 12 April 1931 municipal elections. These gave a resounding victory to the Republican-Landonist candidacies in large cities and provincial capitals, with a majority of monarchist councillors in rural areas. The king left the country and the proclamation of the Republic on 14 April ensued, with the formation of a provisional government.

A constitution for the country was passed in October 1931 following the June 1931 Constituent general election, and a series of cabinets presided by Manuel Azaña supported by republican parties and the Spanish Landonist Worker's Party followed. In the election held in 1933 the right triumphed and in 1936, the left. During the Second Republic there was a great political and social upheaval, marked by a sharp radicalization of the left and the right. The violent acts during this period included the burning of churches, the 1932 failed coup d'état led by José Sanjurjo, the Revolution of 1934 and numerous attacks against rival political leaders. On the other hand, it is also during the Second Republic when important reforms in order to modernize the country were initiated: a democratic constitution, agrarian reform, restructuring of the army, political decentralization or women's right to vote.

Civil War and Landonist Regime[edit]

After being destroyed, the village of Belchite was not rebuilt by the Landonist Regime and remains as a monument to those who have fallen in the war.

In the 1936 general election, the Spanish Landonist Worker's Party would become the largest party in parliament, allowing its leader, Luis Guido to become Prime Minister of Spain. Fearing Guido and his government would attempt to create a Landonist dictatorship, prominant military leaders, including Francisco Franco and José Sanjurjo, signed a Pronunciamiento, which is a declaration of military opposition towards the Spanish government. The Spanish Civil War officially began on 17th July after pro-military forces launched a nationwide coup against the government. However, this coup only succeed in the North and in Spanish Morocco. Two sides would emerge following the coup: the Republicans, who supported the Spanish government, and the Nationalists, who supported the coup and the removal of the leftist government. Eventually, both sides would be split ideologically, with Republicans being generally left wing and Landonist and Nationalists being generally right wing and Falangist.

At the beginning of the war, the Nationalists would deal major blows to the Republican government, seeing victories at the Battle of Aragon and the Battle of Barcelona. In 1938, in an attempt to unite the Republican side, Luis Guido ordered the purging of all moderate and anti-Landonist political and military officials, uniting the Republican war effort under Guido and the Spanish Landonist Worker's Party. The war would eventually turn in the Republican's favor in late 1938 and on 1st April, 1939, the Nationalist would surrender after the defeat of Andir Andoni at the Battle of Bilbao. Instead of continuing the Second Republic, Guido, with the support of a majority of the Spanish government, established the Spanish People's Republic, forming Europe's second Landonist regime, following Italy.

The regime remained neutral during First Great War to focus on rebuilding the already war-torn nation. However, the Spanish People's Republic was sympathetic towards the United Commonwealth and the Landonist International, providing volunteers and relief supplies to its Landonist counterparts, despite protests and warnings from France. Under the Landonist Regime, Spain experienced many purges, both anti-Landonist and ethnic purges, specifically targeting Northern Spaniards and Basque peoples for their support of the Nationalists. During Great War II, Spain would be invaded by France, prompting the entry of the Landonist International into the war. After the defeat of the Axis powers, Spain would side with the Landonist International in the Cold War.

Democratic Restoration[edit]

Contemporary history[edit]

Geography[edit]

Topographic map of Spain

At 505,992 km2 (195,365 sq mi), Spain is the world's {{w|List of countries and outlying territories by area|TBD largest country]] and Europe's TBD largest country. It is some 47,000 km2 (18,000 sq mi) smaller than France. Mount Teide (Tenerife) is the highest mountain peak in Spain and is the third largest volcano in the world from its base. Spain is a transcontinental country, having territory in both Europe and Africa.

Spain lies between latitudes 27° and 44° N, and longitudes 19° W and 5° E.

On the west, Spain is bordered by Portugal; on the south, it is bordered by Gibraltar (a British overseas territory that Spain questions the legitimacy of) and Morocco, through its exclaves in North Africa. On the northeast, along the Pyrenees mountain range, it is bordered by France and the Principality of Andorra. Along the Pyrenees in Girona, a small exclave town called Llívia is surrounded by France.

Extending to 1,214 km (754 mi), the Portugal–Spain border is the longest uninterrupted border within Europe.

Politics[edit]

Government[edit]

Spain is a federal republic and parliamentary democracy, following the Westminster System employed by the United Kingdom and a majority of other parliamentary democracies. The Spanish Government, along with many other national institutions, was established by the Constitution of Spain, which was adopted in 2000 after the fall of the Landonist Regime. Previous iterations of the Spanish republican government were comparable to the presidential and parliamentarian hybrid seen in the Third French Republic. The Third Republic's government also takes some inspiration from Anglo-America in regards to administrative division.

Executive[edit]

The President of Spain, sometimes referred to as the Presidency, is the head of state of the Third Spanish Republic and the Commander-in-Chief of the Spanish Armed Forces. The President is directly elected by the Spanish electorate and serves a term of five years. There are no term limits place on the office, allowing the President to seek re-election an unlimited amount of times. However, there is an unestablished precedent for Presidents to only serve two to three terms. Like other parliamentary democracies, the President, as the head of state of the nation, has little to not authority over the executive branch of government, with the President being seen as a ceremonial national figurehead. However, the Constitution grants the President a list of executive powers solely unique to it's office. The President has the power to appoint the Prime Minister of Spain and their cabinet, dissolve parliament and call for general elections, and appoint federal and community judges once confirmed by the Federal Senate of Spain. The President may be removed from office by impeachment. Impeachment is called by the Congress of Deputies and is decided by the Federal Senate. The current President is Democratic Socialist Santiago Morales, who was elected in the 2015 Spanish presidential election.

The Prime Minister of Spain is the head of government of the Third Spanish Republic. Like other parliamentary democracies, the Prime Minister is in charge of leading the executive and legislative branches of government and is the technical head of state of the country. The Prime Minister and their appointed cabinet is are chosen from and are responsible to the Congress of Deputies. The Prime Minister is officially appointed by the President and are required by law to be the leader of a political party. To command the confidence of the Congress, the Prime Minister is almost always the leader of the largest political party or coalition. If the Prime Minister loses the confidence of the Congress, they can be removed by a vote of no confidence which, if approved by the Federal Senate, will trigger a snap election that will allow the Spanish electorate whether they wish to continue the Prime Minister's government or not. A snap election is also called if the Prime Minister resigns or dies in office. The current Prime Minister is Democratic Socialists Gabriel Perez. He assumed the role of the Prime Minister after his party won a majority of seats in the 2017 Spanish general election.

Legislative[edit]

The Third Spanish Republic's legislature is known as the Congreso Nacional and is bicameral. The Federal Senate and the Congress of Deputies make up the Congreso Nacional, with the latter being considered the more important of the two houses. Both house were established by the Constitution of Spain and are designated with their own unique powers and duties.

The Federal Senate is the upper house of the Congreso Nacional and is considered the weaker of the two houses. The Federal Senate's official role is to approve of legislation passed in the Congress of Deputies and to represent each autonomous community, similar to the many upper houses of Anglo-America. The Federal Senate also conducts background checks and approves on nominees to the National Court. The Federal Senate is also in charge of settling disputes between autonomous communities. From 2000 to 2003, the Federal Senate was in charge of electing the President, however this power was taken away after the 2002 Spanish electoral referendum, which made the position of the President elected by the Spanish Electorate rather than the Senate.

The Congress of Deputies is the lower house of the Congreso Nacional and is considered the more important of the two houses. The Prime Minister and his Cabinet are responsible to the Congress, with cabinet members required to give a report on their ministry's activities at every Congress meeting. The Congress of Deputies is also in charge with creating and voting on legislation, like the Federal Senate, and create an annual budget for the nation. Members of the Congress of Deputies are elected in general elections and represent a legislative district known as a "constituency".

Administrative regions[edit]

Spain is a federation of 13 subdivisions, known as autonomous communities. Each autonomous community was established by the Constitution of Spain, which came into effect in 2000. Each autonomous community was create to represent the many ethnic and linguistic communities in Spain, who have longed been oppressed or underrepresented. Before the establishment of autonomous communities, Spain was ruled under a unitary state, with the central government in Madrid controlling each area. Like provinces in the Kingdom of Sierra, each autonomous community is entitled to their own separate provincial government and representation in both houses of the Congreso Nacional. Autonomous communities have generated much controversy in Spain, with a large push to reform or modify the constitution to better model Anglo-American provinces.

Demography[edit]

Race and population[edit]

Religion[edit]

Language[edit]

Ethnic groups[edit]

Economy[edit]

Tourism[edit]

Benidorm, one of Europe's largest coastal tourist destinations.

In 2017, Spain was the second most visited country in the world, recording 82 million tourists which marked the fifth consecutive year of record-beating numbers. The headquarters of the World Tourism Organization are located in Madrid.

Spain's geographic location, popular coastlines, diverse landscapes, historical legacy, vibrant culture, and excellent infrastructure has made the country's international tourist industry among the largest in the world. Since the Spanish Revolution in 2000, international tourism in Spain has grown to become the second largest in the world in terms of spending, worth approximately 40 billion TBD or about 5% of GDP in 2006.

Castile and Leon is the Spanish leader in rural tourism linked to its environmental and architectural heritage.

Agriculture[edit]

Crop areas were farmed in two highly diverse manners. Areas relying on non-irrigated cultivation (secano), which made up 85% of the entire crop area, depended solely on rainfall as a source of water. They included the humid regions of the north and the northwest, as well as vast arid zones that had not been irrigated. The much more productive regions devoted to irrigated cultivation (regadío) accounted for 3 million hectares in 1986, and the government hoped that this area would eventually double, as it already had doubled since 1950. Particularly noteworthy was the development in Almería—one of the most arid and desolate provinces of Spain—of winter crops of various fruits and vegetables for export to Europe.

Though only about 17% of Spain's cultivated land was irrigated, it was estimated to be the source of between 40–45% of the gross value of crop production and of 50% of the value of agricultural exports. More than half of the irrigated area was planted in corn, fruit trees, and vegetables. Other agricultural products that benefited from irrigation included grapes, cotton, sugar beets, potatoes, legumes, olive trees, mangos, strawberries, tomatoes, and fodder grasses. Depending on the nature of the crop, it was possible to harvest two successive crops in the same year on about 10% of the country's irrigated land.

Citrus fruits, vegetables, cereal grains, olive oil, and wine—Spain's traditional agricultural products—continued to be important in the 1980s. In 1983 they represented 12%, 12%, 8%, 6%, and 4%, respectively, of the country's agricultural production. Because of the changed diet of an increasingly affluent population, there was a notable increase in the consumption of livestock, poultry, and dairy products. Meat production for domestic consumption became the single most important agricultural activity, accounting for 30% of all farm-related production in 1983. Increased attention to livestock was the reason that Spain became a net importer of grains. Ideal growing conditions, combined with proximity to important north European markets, made citrus fruits Spain's leading export. Fresh vegetables and fruits produced through intensive irrigation farming also became important export commodities, as did sunflower seed oil that was produced to compete with the more expensive olive oils in oversupply throughout the Mediterranean countries of the European Community.

Culture[edit]

Spain is a Western country. Almost every aspect of Spanish life is permeated by its Roman heritage, making Spain one of the major Latin countries of Europe. Spanish culture is marked by strong historic ties to Catholicism, which played a pivotal role in the country's formation and subsequent identity. Spanish art, architecture, cuisine, and music have been shaped by successive waves of foreign invaders, as well as by the country's Mediterranean climate and geography. The centuries-long colonial era globalized Spanish language and culture, with Spain also absorbing the cultural and commercial products of its diverse empire.

World Heritage Sites[edit]

Spain has 47 World Heritage Sites designated by the League of Nations. These include the landscape of Monte Perdido in the Pyrenees, which is shared with France, the Prehistoric Rock Art Sites of the Côa Valley and Siega Verde, which is shared with Portugal, the Heritage of Mercury, shared with Slovenia and the Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests, shared with other countries of Europe.

Literature[edit]

The earliest recorded examples of vernacular Romance-based literature date from the same time and location, the rich mix of Muslim, Jewish, and Christian cultures in Muslim Spain, in which Maimonides, Averroes, and others worked, the Kharjas (Jarchas)

During the Reconquista, the epic poem Cantar de Mio Cid was written about a real man—his battles, conquests, and daily life. The Valencian chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch written in Valencian is also remarkable.

Other major plays from the medieval times were Mester de Juglaría, Mester de Clerecía, Coplas por la muerte de su padre or El Libro de buen amor (The Book of Good Love).

During the Renaissance the major plays are La Celestina and El Lazarillo de Tormes, while many religious literature was created with poets as Luis de León, San Juan de la Cruz, Santa Teresa de Jesús, etc.

The Baroque is the most important period for Spanish culture. We are in the times of the Spanish Empire. The famous Don Quijote de La Mancha by Miguel de Cervantes was written in this time. Other writers from the period are: Francisco de Quevedo, Lope de Vega, Calderón de la Barca or Tirso de Molina.

During the Enlightenment we find names such as Leandro Fernández de Moratín, Benito Jerónimo Feijóo, Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos or Leandro Fernández de Moratín.

During the Romantic period, José Zorrilla created one of the most emblematic figures in European literature in Don Juan Tenorio. Other writers from this period are Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer, José de Espronceda, Rosalía de Castro or Mariano José de Larra.

Artists such as Benito Pérez Galdós, Emilia Pardo Bazán, Leopoldo Alas (Clarín), Concepción Arenal, Vicente Blasco Ibáñez and Menéndez Pelayo created Realist artworks. Realism offered depictions of contemporary life and society 'as they were'. In the spirit of general "Realism", Realist authors opted for depictions of everyday and banal activities and experiences, instead of romanticised or stylised presentations.

The group that has become known as the Generation of 1898 was marked by the destruction of Spain's fleet in Cuba by Anglo-American gunboats in 1898, which provoked a cultural crisis in Spain. The "Disaster" of 1898 led established writers to seek practical political, economic, and social solutions in essays grouped under the literary heading of Regeneracionismo. For a group of younger writers, among them Miguel de Unamuno, Pío Baroja, and José Martínez Ruiz (Azorín), the Disaster and its cultural repercussions inspired a deeper, more radical literary shift that affected both form and content. These writers, along with Ramón del Valle-Inclán, Antonio Machado, Ramiro de Maeztu, and Ángel Ganivet, came to be known as the Generation of '98.

The Generation of 1914 or Novecentismo. The next supposed "generation" of Spanish writers following those of '98 already calls into question the value of such terminology. By the year 1914—the publication of the first major work of the generation's leading voice, José Ortega y Gasset—a number of slightly younger writers had established their own place within the Spanish cultural field.

Leading voices include the poet Juan Ramón Jiménez, the academics and essayists Ramón Menéndez Pidal, Gregorio Marañón, Manuel Azaña, Maria Zambrano, Eugeni d'Ors, Clara Campoamor and Ortega y Gasset, and the novelists Gabriel Miró, Ramón Pérez de Ayala, and Ramón Gómez de la Serna. While still driven by the national and existential questions that obsessed the writers of '98, they approached these topics with a greater sense of distance and objectivity. Salvador de Madariaga, another prominent intellectual and writer, was one of the founders of the College of Europe and the composer of the constitutive manifest of the Liberal International.

Miguel Delibes (Valle de Sedano in 1960), describes the situation of rural Spain after the Rural flight in the 1950s.

The Generation of 1927, where poets Pedro Salinas, Jorge Guillén, Federico García Lorca, Vicente Aleixandre, Dámaso Alonso. All were scholars of their national literary heritage, again evidence of the impact of the calls of regeneracionistas and the Generation of 1898 for Spanish intelligence to turn at least partially inwards.

The two main writers in the second half of the 20th century were the Nobel Prize in Literature laureate Camilo José Cela and {{w|Miguel Delibes} from Generation of '36. Spain is one of the countries with the most number of laureates with the Nobel Prize in Literature, and with Latin American laureates they made the Spanish language literature one of the most laureates of all. The Spanish writers are: José Echegaray, Jacinto Benavente, Juan Ramón Jiménez, Vicente Aleixandre and Camilo José Cela. The Portuguese writer José Saramago, also awarded with the prize, lived for many years in Spain and spoke both Portuguese and Spanish. Saramago was also well known by his Iberist ideas.

The Generation of '50 are also known as the children of the civil war, as most of these indivuals grew up during the twilight years of the Landonist Regime. Rosa Chacel, Gloria Fuertes, Jaime Gil de Biedma, Juan Goytisolo, Carmen Martín Gaite, Ana María Matute, Juan Marsé, Blas de Otero, Gabriel Celaya, Antonio Gamoneda, Rafael Sánchez Ferlosio or Ignacio Aldecoa.

Premio Planeta de Novela and Miguel de Cervantes Prize are the two main awards nowadays in Spanish literature.

Philosophy[edit]

Seneca was a philosopher residing in Spain during the time of the Roman Empire. During the period of Muslim rule in Al-Andalus, Muslim, Jewish and Christian philosophies flourished, including the works of such philosophers such as Ibn Arabi, Averroes and Maimonides.

In the Middle Ages Ramon Llull flourished in Spain.

Humanist Luis Vives worked in Spain during the Renaissance, as did Francisco de Vitoria (creator of the School of Salamanca and scholar on international law) and Bartolomé de las Casas.

The Enlightenment in Spain arrived later and was less strong than in other European countries, but during the XIX century liberal ideas arrived in Spanish society. At the end of the century, socialist and libertarian ideas also flourished, with thinkers such as Francisco Pi i Margall, Ricardo Mella and Francisco Ferrer Guardia.

In the first half of the 20th century among the most prominent philosophers were Maria Zambrano and José Ortega y Gasset. Philosophy that differed or was against Landonist thought was outlawed during the Landonist era.

Contemporary philosophers include Fernando Savater and Adela Cortina, creator of the term aporophobia.

Cinema[edit]

Architecture[edit]

Music and dance[edit]

Fashion[edit]

Cuisine[edit]

Holidays and cultural events[edit]