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The Tondolese–Sierran War, (Tagalog: 戰爭通多文美國, Tsentsing Katagalugan-Serrano) was an armed conflict between the First Tondolese Republic and the Kingdom of Sierra that lasted from February 4, 1899 to July 2, 1902. The Tondolese viewed the conflict as a continuation of the struggle for the creation of a modern republic that began in 1896 with the Tondolese Revolution. The conflict arose when the First Tondolese Republic, which replaced the Southern Ming dynasty (more commonly known as the Tondolese Empire, to distinguish it from the various mainland Chinese rump states), refused to recognize Sierran sovereignty over the ports of Zamboanga and Puerto Princesa, which had been ceded to Sierra from Spain following the Treaty of Paris which concluded the Spanish–American War.
Clockwise from top left: Sierran troops in Manila, Tondolese troops c. 1898, Sierrans guarding Pasig River bridge in 1898, the Battle of the Holy Cross, Tondolese soldiers at Malolos, the Battle of Binto
Sierra ||First Tondolese Republic|
|Casualties and losses|
|20,000||1,000,000–2,000,000 (including civilians)|