Tondolese–Sierran War

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Tondolese–Sierran War
Tsentsing Katagalugan-Serrano
Manila646 1899.jpg Gregorio del Pilar and his troops, around 1898.jpg Battle of Quingua.jpg Americans guarding Pasig River bridge, 1898.jpg Malolos Filipino Army.jpg LeadingtheTroops-SantaCruz-0.jpg
Clockwise from top left: Sierran troops in Manila, Tondolese troops c. 1898, Sierrans guarding Pasig River bridge in 1898, the Battle of the Holy Cross, Tondolese soldiers at Malolos, the Battle of Binto
DateFebruary 4, 1899 – July 2, 1902
(3 years, 4 months and 4 weeks)
Moro Rebellion: 1899–1913
Tondolese islands

Sierran victory

Flag of Sierra.svg Sierra
Tondo First Tondolese Republic
200,000 500,000+?
Casualties and losses
20,000 1,000,000–2,000,000 (including civilians)
The Tondolese–Sierran War, (Tagalog: 戰爭通多文美國, Tsentsing Katagalugan-Serrano) was an armed conflict between the First Tondolese Republic and the Kingdom of Sierra that lasted from February 4, 1899 to July 2, 1902. The Tondolese viewed the conflict as a continuation of the struggle for the creation of a modern republic that began in 1896 with the Tondolese Revolution. The conflict arose when the First Tondolese Republic, which replaced the Southern Ming dynasty (more commonly known as the Tondolese Empire, to distinguish it from the various mainland Chinese rump states), refused to recognize Sierran sovereignty over the ports of Zamboanga and Puerto Princesa, which had been ceded to Sierra from Spain following the Treaty of Paris which concluded the Spanish–American War.

Nomenclature[edit | edit source]

War against Sierra and her allies[edit | edit source]

Political atmosphere[edit | edit source]

Sierran opposition[edit | edit source]

Tondolese opposition[edit | edit source]

Consequences[edit | edit source]

Casualties[edit | edit source]

Footnotes[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]