Tondolese language

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Tondolese language
Region Tondo
Native speakers
approx. 147,500,000+ (globally) (est.2017)
L2 – ~14,500,000
Hanli (mainly); Bopomofo (ruby script); Latin alphabet (rarely/historically); Baybayin (historically)
Signed Han
Official status
Official language in
 Tondo (official)
 Kingdom of Sierra (co-official)
Regulated by International Order on the Tondolese language
Language codes
ISO 639-1 td
ISO 639-3
Tondolese (呂宋的文; ‘’Lusongan‘’) is the sole official language of the Republic of Tondo and is the tenth-most spoken language in the world by the number of its native speakers. It is considered a part of the Malayo-Polynesian branch of the Austronesian languages. However, it has received heavy influence from the Sinitic languages; most notably, the Southern Min languages spoken in Fujian and Taiwan. In spite of Tondo's geographic isolation from mainland Asia, Tondolese is considered by mainstream linguists to be a part of the Mainland Southeast Asia linguistic area (MSEA). Tondolese is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 150 modern varieties, including its standard variety based on the dialects spoken in Manila.

History[edit | edit source]

Prehistory[edit | edit source]

Classical Tagalog[edit | edit source]

Later Tagalog[edit | edit source]

Early Tondolese[edit | edit source]

Modern Tondolese[edit | edit source]

Phonology[edit | edit source]

Vowels[edit | edit source]

Monophthongs /a/,  /ɛ/,  /i/,  /ɪ/,  /o/,  /u/,
Diphthongs /ja/,  /jɛ/,  /jo/,  /ju/,  /wa/,  /wɛ/,  /wo/,  /wu/

Consonants[edit | edit source]

Bilabial Dental
Alveolar
Post-alveolar
Palatal
Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ ɴ
Plosive voiceless p (p̚) t (t̚) k (k̚) ʔ
voiced b d g
Affricate Sibilant voiceless t͡s t͡ʃ (t͡ɕ)
voiced d͡z d͡ʒ (d͡ʑ)
Non-sibilant voiceless
voiced
Fricative Sibilant voiceless s ʃ (ɕ) h
voiced ʒ (ʑ)
Non-sibilant voiceless f (ɸ)
voiced
Approximant l, ɾ (r) j w

Phonotactics[edit | edit source]

There are five main phonological constraints:

  • all syllables have a nucleus
  • the onset is optional and while typically comprised of a single consonant, it can have a maximum of two consonants: a plosive or an affricate, followed by an approximant
  • the nucleus is obligatory, and must always be a syllabic vowel
  • the coda is optional, and can only consist of nasals, lateral approximants, and unvoiced obstruents (which are realized as unreleased stops)
  • the only word-final consonants permitted are nasals and lateral approximants

Grammar[edit | edit source]

Verbs[edit | edit source]

Nouns[edit | edit source]

Pronouns[edit | edit source]

Personal[edit | edit source]

Interrogative[edit | edit source]

Demonstrative[edit | edit source]

Adjectives[edit | edit source]

Adverbs[edit | edit source]

Particles[edit | edit source]

Negation[edit | edit source]

Word order[edit | edit source]

Dialects[edit | edit source]