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Treaty of Rio Grande

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Treaty of Rio Grande
Tratado de Rio Grande
Treaty of Peace, Goodwill, and Cooperation between the Republic of Brazoria and the Kingdom of Sierra
The Sabine Peace House, site of the Treaty of Rio Grande's signage
Context Peace treaty to resolve a territorial dispute between Brazoria and Sierra over New Mexico and Colorado by establishing a border
Signed July 20, 1863 (1863-07-20)
Location Sabine, Brazoria
Effective November 1, 1863
  • Sam Burnet
  • Stephen Burleson
  • Alfonzo de Avila
  • James Stephenson
  • Nathaniel Sheffield
  • Arthur Prescott
Citations 5 Stat. 505; IT 108
Languages English, Spanish, French, German
The Treaty of Rio Grande is a peace treaty between the Kingdom of of Brazoria and the Kingdom of Sierra that concluded the New Mexican War and the territorial dispute between the two parties over the New Mexico and Colorado regions. The treaty was signed on July 20, 1863 in Sabine, Brazoria and came into force on November 1, 1861 after it was ratified by the parties' respective legislatures. It is the first of five comprehensive treaties between Brazoria and Sierra that form the Pact of the Rockies and the foundation of the two nation's formal diplomatic relations.

Following five years of armed conflict and skirmishes throughout the politically contentious regions of New Mexico and Colorado, the two entered in an armistice to resolve the issue peacefully. The treaty divided Sierra and Brazoria's claims along the Rio Grande and the Rocky Mountains, allowing both nations to retain control over parts of the region. Ownership of land would be transferred and citizens whose property fell under foreign soil would be offered dual citizenship or financial compensation. The signage of the treaty signaled the beginning of a long-term peace and friendly relationship between Brazoria and Sierra, which has lasted to the present-day.


Following the end of the Mexican–American War in 1848 with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the Territory of New Mexico was established and was organized as a joint condominium between the California Republic and Brazoria and in accordance with the treaty, both California and Brazoria were given ten years to finalize an agreement to properly partition and administer New Mexico. When the California Republic was dissolved and reorganized into the Kingdom of Sierra in 1858, the task of establishing a pennant agreement with regards to New Mexico was handed over to the new government of the young nation. Brazoria had proposed dividing the territory among the Rio Grande region in 1861, but the Sierran government rejected it citing how Brazoria would get the majority of New Mexican land. In response, Sierra proposed dividing New Mexico in half so each nation would get an equal share of the territory, but the Brazorian government refused and encouraged its citizens to settle in New Mexico and claim as much land as possible. The move angered the Sierran government who responded by sending in troops of the Sierran Royal Army to occupy Sierran claims in Western New Mexico and were ordered to deport Brazorian settlers out of territory that Sierra claimed.

Tensions between Brazoria and Sierra rose and escalated to full-blown conflict on June 17, 1861 following the Massacre of San Juan Crossing where Sierran troops opened fired on Brazorian settlers protesting the deportations and resulted in Brazoria declaring war in response. The war went on for two years and was a largely low-level conflict with the battles of the war being mostly skirmishes that lasted only for a few hours at most with the largest battle of the war, Battle of Glorieta Pass, lasting only for a few days. By March 1863, both the Sierran and Brazorian governments sought peace and sent diplomats and representatives to negotiate the date and terms for a peace treaty in order to end the conflict as Brazoria's interests laid to the east in defending its borders as the American Civil War waged on.




See also