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Motto: "Sfrenato e indomito"
("Unbridled and Indomitable")
Location of the United Provinces in dark green
and largest city
|Recognised national languages||
|Ethnic groups |
|Government||Federal presidential republic|
|Almerigo Cianflone Di Martino (S)|
|Stefania Gambini (S)|
|Lanfranco Mormile (FN)|
|Leonzio Stefanini (S)|
|Chamber of Representatives|
|Independence from the Spanish Empire, March 11 1808|
• Settlement of Smeraldo
|June 11 1541|
• Sangermano Revolt
|May 12 1725|
• Establishment of the United Provinces of the River Plate
|March 11 1808|
|September 12 1868|
• Establishment of the United Provinces of Adamantina
|December 21 1873|
|August 27 1968|
• Modern Constitution
|April 1 1975|
|997,989 km2 (385,326 sq mi)|
• 2023 estimate
• 2020 census
|GDP (PPP)||2022 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2022 estimate|
• Per capita
|Currency||United Provinces libra (UPL)|
|Time zone||UTC-4 (UP Standard Time)|
The United Provinces of Adamantina (commonly known as the United Provinces or Adamantina; Italian: Province Unite d'Adamantina and Spanish: Provincias Unidas de Adamantina from whence PUA) is a sovereign country located in southern half of South America. Adamantina is bordered by the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, Patagonia to the south, São Leopoldo to the northeast, and Bolivia to the north. The United Provinces covers an area of 997,989 km2 (385,326 sq mi), making it the largest Italian-speaking nation in the world by area. The United Provinces is the third largest country in South America, and fifth largest country in the Americas. Established as a federal state, the nation is divided into eleven provinces, a single federal capital (Porto Pellegrini, also the largest city), and a single unincorporated federal territory, the Adamantine Pacific Islands. Each province and the federal capital have their own constitutions under a symmetrical federal system. The United Provinces has claimed sovereignty over portions of Cisplatina, a region of São Leopoldo, since its independence.
Earliest records of human presence in modern-day Adamantina dates back to the Paleolithic period, with the Mapuche and Mbayá inhabiting the coastal plains and the interior plains, the Charrúa in the southwest, the Diaguita in the southeast, and the Guaraní in the north. Following the 1522 siege of Rhodes, the Neapolitan Knight of St. John Lorenzo di Pellegrini was commissioned in 1524 by the Crown of Aragon to explore the South American coastline. Aragonese and Neapolitan colonization of the Río de la Plata began in the 1540s, establishing the Governorate of the Río de la Plata in 1549. The Río de la Plata was effectively governed from the Viceroyalty of Peru for the entirety of its time as a Habsburg possession.
Following the expeditions of John Narborough in the 1672, the English began to colonize the region now known as Patagonia. English interest in the region was primarily focused on the Spanish Captaincy of Chile, culminating in the successful English South Seas campaign of the War of the Spanish Succession. In 1713, both the Rio de la Plata and the Captaincy of Chile were ceded to Britain as the River Plate Colony and Santa Catarina Colony respectively. The rising tensions between the interior Italian-Spanish Catholics and the growing coastal population of Protestant English defined the precarious nature of both colonies in the 18th century. The news of the American Revolutionary War arriving in 1776 and of the French Revolution in 1793 further fanned the flames of discontent throughout what had become Britain's largest South American possessions.
In May 1810, creole political leaders in Porto Pellegrini declared the independence of the United Provinces of the River Plate from the United Kingdom following the French victory in the War of the Fifth Coalition. Revolutionaries in the west declared the independence of the Catarina Republic soon after. After losing Saint James to a Spanish Royalist invasion force from Lima, the Catarina Republic petitioned to join to the United Provinces, forming the basis of the modern federal republic. Britain recognized the independence of the United Provinces in the Treaty of Rio de Janeiro after a series of unsuccessful invasion attempts in 1817 and 1819, a decade after the United Provinces War of Independence formally began.
The ratification of the third constitution established the current modern federal republic. During the late 19th century and early 20th century the Baroni Bovari emerged as the dominant political class and promoted a policy of mass immigration and economic liberalism. The United Provinces aligned itself with the United Kingdom the Great War I (1932-1938) and the Great War II (1953-1957). The United Provinces, aligned with the Entente Impériale during Great War I opened a fourth front against the Triple Alliance against Brazil.
The United Provinces is considered a middle power competing with the regional power of Brazil. It is a developing country, considered bound to a middile income economy. Among the nations of South America, it ranks the second highest in Human Development Index and 6th in the Americas, behind Patagonia. It is a member of the Conference of American States (CAS), Organization of American States(OAS), South American Common Market (SACM), Trans-Pacific Allied Community (TPAC) and the World Trade Organization (WTO), International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank.
The name "Adamantina" for the present day region derives from the the word adamas via Late Latin diamas and Old French diamant. In ancient Greek ἀδάμας (adamas) genitive ἀδάμαντος (adamantos), literally 'unconquerable, untamable'. The national motto for Adamantina lends as a callback to the the Greek translation, utilizing the phrase "Sfrenato e indomito" (unbridled and indomitable).
In English, the country's official name is translated as the "United Provinces of Adamantina", with Adamantina deriving from the Middle English word "adamantyne" or "adamauntyn". The word adamantine roughly translates to "like a diamond" or "incapable of being broken". The description of the region by the word Adamantina was first found on a Neapolitan map in 1574, with some scholars suggesting that the term was first popularized by the urbanite elite of Naples who considered the colonists as being brutish and unruly.
The name Adamantina was popularized by the Neapolitan lieutenants of Matteo Stiriaco Balestra during the Annessioni, who sought to distinguish their communities from the indigenous inhabitants of the colony. During the War of Independence in the early 19th century, the name gained popularity among the majority of the population, though while it was widely utilized by the public it was not set as the official name of the country. From 1810 until 1869 the nation was officially known as the "United Provinces of the River Plate" (Province Unite di Rio della Plata).
In the aftermath of the Platine Civil War, the nation was proclaimed the "Adamantine Confederation" (Confederazione Adamantina) on July 1869. The 1873 constitution implemented the present official name of the country, the "United Provinces of Adamantina" (Province Unite d'Adamantina).
Pre-colonial periodPaleolithic period, with further traces in the Mesolithic and Neolithic. Stone tools found along the Pellegrini River indicate that permanent settlement of the region began as long as 18,500 years ago. The first groups to settle Adamantina were basic hunter-gatherers, who had little to no experience in the development of pottery. These groups were ultimately conquered by a group from the west which splintered off into the various tribes of modern Adamantina. Several tribes developed, with their economies and culture being based around the river. The largest tribes to develop were the Chanuche and Bayama inhabiting the coastal plains and the interior plains, the Dabu in the arid southwest and the Ánima in the mountainous southeast. The Chanuche were the most technologically and economically prosperous of the tribes, and prior to the landing of Nunzo di Rosignelle had extensive trade with the Chanuche of Gapolania.
Colonial periodEtruria occurred as early as 1548 CE in the most northern sections of the country along the border of modern day Gapolania, roughly three years after the foundation of Astia. Etrurian explorers first encountered the Chanuche people, who were separated into smaller tribes. In 1552 CE the Poveglia Council commissioned Verenzio De Sarro to explore the uncharted interior of the region, uncovering valleys, plains and minor mountain ranges. In 1536 CE De Sarro returned samples of gold, silver and a single four carat diamond to the Poveglia Council as tool to promote investment in the region.
The De Sarro Diamond sparked widespread interest in the newly discovered lands, and the Council of Thirteen requested that De Sarro establish posts throughout the region to uncover more precious minerals. The Council of Thirteen’s fascination with the diamond led to a quota placed upon De Sarro and his expedition; retrieve thirteen equally sized diamonds from the region for the ruling families of Poveglia. De Sarro was granted the necessary resources by the Council of Thirteen for the subjugation of the indigenous people and establishment of the first settlement in the region which at the time was referred to as Terra di Lucentezza.
The first permanent settlement of the explored region was Smeraldo. After two years without discovering any diamonds, De Sarro began fabricating stories of splendor to attract more settlers. In 1541 CE, the expedition’s brutality increased after tales of De Sarro’s failure to return the diamonds to Poveglia was spreading among the elite. Alongside Nunzo di Rosignelle, Verenzio De Sarro orchestrated a military campaign, which resulted in the deaths of several thousands of indigenous peoples. De Sarro ruled the Povelian colony of Lucentezza, alongside Sebastian Callanera in Nassea and Di Rosignelle in Astia. Settlement occurred similar to that of Gapolania, with the establishment of latifundias. Unlike the latifundias in Gapolania, which focused of the production of sugar cane and coffee beans, the agricultural production in colonial Adamantina was focused on the production of corn and wheat.
Lucentezza was renamed the Colony of Adamantina In 1567, encompassing regions in the interior of the continent. Adamantina's growth as an independent colony differed from Gapolania in regards to its importation of slavery, refusing to settle Bahian slaves. Governor Argimiro Ruisi (1533-1570) pushed for continued Poveglian migration and believed in an Euclean only migration policy. Adamantina was transformed into the Governorate of Adamantina in 1579 and was organized as a jurisdiction of the Viceroyalty of New Povelia. Under the Viceroyalty, Adamantina was under the direct control of the Povelian Doge. Ignazio Ricotta (1545-1640), initated the First Annintamento against the indigenous communities of the interior, forcefully relocating several hundreds of thousands to the mountainous interior of the governorate. Waves of Povelian settlers entered into the governorate, who established farmsteads and small communities with a strong emphasis on cattle ranching.
In the 17th century, when the knowledge of the region's interior expanded, a development of mining sparked a mass migration towards the Sierra Bianca mountains and resulted in founding settlements that would later grow into major industrial hubs. By the half of the 18th century, the Viceroyalty of New Povelia had been divided between Adamantina, Gapolania and largely undeveloped interior, with loose direct control over the local population. This caused a series of indigenous uprisings, the main ones happening in 1731 and 1756, both of which were crushed by the Etrurian military and resulted in partition of the native-owned land.
Matteo Stiriaco Balestra launched the Second Annientamento in 1716 CE which focused on the rebellious Sei Tribù Ordinate. Productive agricultural land in the heart of the country was divided up among investors from mainland Etruria which was then quartered into separated tracts of land for tenants. Balestra and the colonial government drafted racial laws that allowed only Eucleans to farm tracts. Questions regarding who was truly ‘Euclean’ caused division within the population, as Balestra considered some the earliest settlers (who had intermarried into the Sei Tribù Ordinate) as being non-white.
Unrest in Semara and Gapolania arose between the disparities between the elites, Bahian and indigenous peoples, leading to the rise of the Pantheonisti movement. Pantheonistian ideology was built on the belief of equality, freedom and liberty, and was exceptionally popular among the poor. In Adamantina, the ruling landlords of the nation sought to divert from this ideology, which they viewed as subversive. Sinesio Labriola, a political activist, philosopher and revolutionary authored the Volontà Adamantina (Adamantine Will), in which he advocated against a state based upon an established religion, advocating for deism, freethought, and openly criticized the Solarian Catholic Church. The popularization of Labriola's beliefs spread throughout rural Adamantina, which at the time was already hesitant towards the clergy. Labriola supported the abolition of slavery, but took a hard stance regarding the exclusion of Bahian migrants. The popularization of Labriola's beliefs began to spread throughout the 1780s and 1790s, and was synthesized with the ideals of liberty, utilitarianism and freedom. Several landed elites, disgruntled by Etrurian rule formed the Fraternal Order of the Adamantine Yeomanry, which became the focal point for the independence movement. Simultaneously to the rise of the secular ideology in the rural communities of the nation, the urban areas of the colony began gravitating towards the religious and revolutionary fever unraveling in Etruria. The Eturian Revolution (1783-1785), the overthrow of the Grand Principality of Tyrrenhus and the foundation of the Etrurian First Republic prompted the ideology of Pantheonisti faction to spread within the Adamantine costal cities of Almeiveira, Camporaele, Paremunde, Salination, Semerillo and Castiglione di Catarina.
The vast of the territory and slow communications led most interior areas to become isolated from the Etrurian authorities, leading to further association with the land rather than the colonial leadership of the Viceroyalty. In the political structure of the Viceroyalty, most position were filled by people designated by the government in Etruria, without a strong commitment for Adamantine problems or interests. The prohibition imposed on Adamantine agricultural goods by Etruria was also seen as damaging to the landlords agricultural operations. In 1801 authorities from Camporaele attempted to launch their own version of La Purga against followers of Labriola, leading to an extreme backlash from the landed gentry. Political instability quickly ensured after a series of anti-secular riots engulfed the cities of Almeiveria and Paremunde. The reforms brought by the Devotion of the Republic to Heaven and the Declaration of Rights of State, further disrupted the economic stability of Adamantina, with colonial authorities attempting to abolish the currency and establishing prices controls.
With the collapse of the Weranian Republic in 1802, and the decline of Etrurian supremacy in Euclea, several influential leaders in Adamantina began recruiting officers for the effort to break away from the First Republic. Simone Alberighi, a cavalrymen from the unorganized area of Castello (now day Rieti) was recruited by the leaders of the Fraternal Order of the Adamantine Yeomanry to lead the effort. In 1803 the August Revolution engulfed the nation, as partisans rose up across the country, the targeting Pantheonistian supporters in the rural regions of the country began to worry the political elite. Ceremonial burnings of churches, religious material and even clergy members was operated in a fashion similar to the bonfire ceremonies conducted in Etruria. Violence began to spread into the urban areas of Prosperita and Arata, forcing the first Assembly of the Adamantine Municipalities, which sought to restore control within the two provinces. Alberighi addressed the municipalities, and eventually won the support of the assembly to begin launching a military campaign against the colonial authorities and establish an independent republic.
During the Spring of 1804 Alberighi amassed the Revolutionary Army of Asterias Inferior in Prosperita and began battling the Viceroyalty forces throughout the countryside. His victory at the Battle of Casanova, commenced on October 31, 1804 leading to wave of patriotic enthusiasm that bolstered the recruitment campaign of Alberighi. Etrurian officials in Adamantina relayed the dire circumstance to Solaria after the loss of Casanova. President of the First Citizen, Francesco Cassio Caciarelli dispatched general Bardomiano Porfirio Crescenzi to Almeiveria in an effort to control the mouth of the Almiverian River. With the control of the river and the major port city, the Etrurian authorities began confiscating the agricultural goods sent down the river, effectively establishing a blockade on the country. In response to the blockade, several dignitaries of every province assembled in Sano Stefano for the first assembly of the Senate of Sano Stefano, which issued the Adamantine Declaration of Independence (officially the United Provinces Declaration of Independence). All military powers were designated to the Junta of the United Provinces of Asterias Inferior, and the document officially established the Confederated Senate of the United Provinces which acted as a meeting point for all the provinces to coordinate the funding for the war effort. Simone Alberighi, Gabriele Montanari and Lorenzo Leone were placed in control of the Junta.
In 1805 Alberighi failed to capture the city of Almiveria during the First Battle of Almiveria, and suffered significant casualties. Although the army was demoralized, the Revolutionary Army continued north to retake the costal cities of Salination and Semerillo during a series of skirmishes. Alberighi utilized the first incarnation of the Adamantine flag on September 10th, 1805 against Etrurian forces during the Battle of Castiglione di Catarina, which popularized the flag. The Junta of the United Provinces began to utilize the flag formally for all of its armies on December 20th, 1805, and was formally adopted to represent the Confederated Senate of the United Provinces on January 8th, 1806.In an attempt to crush the remaining Etrurian troops, Alberighi entered into Semara in December of 1805. Efforts to rally troops in Semara proved difficult for Etrurian general Alberto Montalto as the local populace was reluctant to align with the Pantheonisti movement. With General Alberighi in Samara, chasing after the Loyalist forces, Gabriele Montanari led several skirmishes against Loyalist partisans outside Salination, defending the city from a offensive across the Almiverian river.
Worried that Etrurian would retake Salination, Alberighi was forced to return to Adamantina by the Confederated Senate. Respecting the authority of the Senate, Alberighi reentered Adamantina at the end of 1806. While crossing the Trinitite Creek, Alberighi was attacked by Gapolanian Pantheonistian troops led by Sviturno Giannattasio, suffering a minor defeat. Fearing a revolt in Samara, the Giannattasio returned to Semara, refusing to pursue Alberighi into Catarina. General Lorenzo Leone, failed to capture northern Arata during a series of skirmishes during 1806, leading to a stalemate between the belligerents. Internal issues in Etruria led to a decline in support for the war effort in Adamantina, leading to a series of desertions in Arata. General Crescenzi launched a succesful assault on Salination during the Second Battle of Salination on May 4 1807, successfully regaining control of Northern Prosperita. Throughout 1807 both sides continued to bolster their forces and reestablish order in their respective territories, leading to another year long stalemate.
Alberighi realized the potential of striking the city of Alimiveria, capitalizing on Crescenzi's forces being split by the Alimiverian River. Alberighi began constructed several transport ships, and a low quality frigate to initiate a landing on the northern shores of Alimiveria. During the 1808 Offensive on Alimiveria Alberighi sailed into the East Arucian Sea with 5,000 troops, traveling for four three days, the ships successfully landed on the northern shores of the western side of the Alimiverian River. Coordinating with Lorenzo Leone's forces from Casanova, the two armies simultaneously attacked forcing a eight day siege. Crescenzi surrendered to Alberighi on January 11th, 1808, although the war was not officially ended until the signing of the Treaty of Tyrrhenus on September 15th, 1811 between Adamantina and the United Kingdom of Etruria, signed by both Alberighi and Caio Aurelio I.
Early republic & civil war (1808-1814)
With the conclusion of the war, the provinces immediately convened in Sarro City in Prosperita to formally declare the establishment of a unified state. Ten delegates from the five original provinces signed the Declaration of National Unity, which established the United Provinces of Asterias Inferior as a political entity on March 11th, 1808. The initial United Provinces were deemed a confederacy of independent states, although with provisions that allowed the president to reestablish the junta. The declaration formally placed all legislative powers into the hands of the Confederated Senate of the United Provinces of Asterias Inferior, granting each provinces two votes. Rights were granted to all citizens of the individual provinces, including equal treatment, freedom of movement and established extradition agreements between all the provinces. The declaration also provided certain powers to the federal government, including the ability to declare war, levée en masse and establish a national post office. Alberighi assumed the presidency, but delegated much of the duties of the executive to a large cabinet of secretaries and committee members. Delegates were split between wanting to declare Adamantina as a unitary state, as a federated state or as a confederacy.
Among the delegates, the three factions; the Confederati, Federalisti and the Unitari. Each had a factional leadership, with a support from a geographic region. The Confederati were led by General Lorenzo Leone and the Governor of Catarina, Bastiano de Abondiolis, while the Unitari were led by Gabriele Montanari and the Governor of Arata, Miniato Calvacanti. The Conferati sought to maintain the current government as a confederation. The Federalisti and Unitari sought to reform the government into either a federal or unitary state, respectively. These three faction sparred throughout the republic's infancy, without any specific faction taking over a majority within the Confederated Senate. In 1811 the appropriation of seats was brought into question, with the Unitari seeking to establish a lower chamber based on proportional representation. Simone Alberighi, who was among the Federalisti faction sided with the Unitari, but was reluctant on the disbandment of Senate, as he feared that Lucentezza and Catarina would seceded.
On August 8th, 1812, Alberighi order the Confederated Senate to reconvene on the subject of establishing a lower house to better represent the population. In November the provincial legislatures of Lucentezza and Catarina declared the Alliance of the Free Peoples of Asterias Inferior. The Unitari and Federalisti formally merged in December and the convened without the provinces now apart of the Alliance of Free Peoples. Delegates who had formerly attended the signing of the Declaration of National Unity reconvened on December 3rd, 1812 to formally discuss the construction of a federal constitution, after roughly two weeks the convention ended and delegates were instructed to return by next March. Fearing that a unified force of the lower southern provinces could easily take Lucentezza, Abondiolis led his army to Prosperita capture the city of Sarro. On February 28th, Abondiolis' army sacked the city of Sarro along with the convention hall, greatly demoralizing Prosperita's populace.
The United Provinces' lagging economy and lack of a sound currency caused issues with raising a new army. The Confederated Senate suspended the next convention and once again established the junta, with Alberighi as the supreme commander of the armed forces. Alberighi initiated the United Provinces Land Ordinance Trust which set aside several millions of acres in the unorganized territories for repayment to troops. Immediately a land survey was commenced and the issuing of grants were handed out, with each soldier receiving roughly 10 acres for half a years service. Recruitment flourished and the United Province's campaign to retake the northern provinces resumed. Alberighi's forces retook Lucentezza through a series of battles throughout the later half of 1813, resulting in the collapse of the Abondiolis' army. On September 11, 1813 the Alliance of Free Peoples surrender to Alberighi after the Battle of Semerillo. Among the provisions stipulated within the surrender was the exclusion of Lucentezza and Catarina in the next constitutional convention. Alberighi returned to Sarro City to the assembled Confederated Senate, where he announced the dissolution of the junta and resigned from the presidency. Vice President of the Republic, Miniato Calvacanti assumed the duties of conducting the constitutional convention which resumed on December 12th, 1813.
On January 1st, 1814 the first Constitution of Adamantina was ratified, establishing the parameters for provincial and federal elections, set to be held on on October 9th. The most significant changes to the government was the establishment of the Chamber of Representatives, which held a series of powers separate from the reformed Confederated Senate; the Senate.
Expansion and the Bovine Barons (1814-1849)
During the 1814 presidential election, Miniato Calvacanti was victorious in securing a landslide election. Throughout his term, he was supported by politicians affiliated with the Unitari and Federalisti factions. Calvacanti's regime brought about a period of economic prosperity and domestic stability. Among the most politically important shifts was the the rise of powerful executive governance, diminishing the authority of the National Congress. Although this centralist approach caused discontent within the northern provinces, the military presence within these still occupied provinces quelled any attempts to reestablish the Alliance of Free Peoples. Calvacanti prompted a policy of economic liberalism, that supported low tariffs on externally manufactured goods and the export of domestic agricultural goods. The University of Adamantina, located in Sarro City was established on December 1 1817 under the direction of Calvacanti.
The landowning classes of Adamantina flourished under Calvacanti, and became a powerful constituency within the nation's political apparatus. These powerful landowning elite became known as the Baroni Bovini. Calvacanti won four consecutive presidential elections in 1818, 1822, 1826 and 1830 with the financial and political support of the Baroni Bovini. These powerful businessmen supported the colonization of the interior, seeking to buy up unclaimed lands for discounted prices from the government. Calvacanti successfully pushed legislation through the Senate and Chamber of representatives in 1829 to amend the constitution to allow presidents to serve six years during their term rather than just four. Two provinces were admitted to the republic under Calvacanti, Venosa (1821) from the the territory of Arata and Castello and Sarno (1825) from Prosperita. In both Venosa and Sarno, the Baroni Bovini held exclusive political control within all branches of government. In 1831 Calvancanti died, and was succeeded by his protégé and vice-president Quintilio Piemonte (1789-1863), who served the remainder of his predecessors six year term.
Piemonte promoted a policy of mass immigration throughout the early 1830s, expanding the labor pool of the nation at the direction of the Baroni Bovini. During the middle the Piemonte's presidency, a group of staunch conservative constitutionalist actively campaigned to see the return of the four year term limits. Among the Baroni the debate over the issue of the length of presidential terms caused a rift within the constituency, weakening them politically throughout the 1830s and 1840s. Piemonte succumbed to the demands of the Baroni faction in support of four year presidential terms, and spear headed the amendment to reduce presidential limits from six years to four years in 1835. The four year term was reintroduced during the 1836 presidential election.
Piedmonte won his first election in 1836, and throughout his second term was a strong supporter of continuing the colonization effort into the interior. Shortly after Piedmonte's inauguration the Monfalcone Territory and the San Loreto Territory were established in an effort to further administer the activities of the interior. In 1839 the National Congress passed the Indigenous Deportation Act, which formally removed several indigenous tribes from areas within the established provinces into the territories of Monfalcone and San Loreto. The goal of the act was to clear space for the Baroni Bovini to expand their cattle operations and promote wheat production. Piedmonte won his second election in 1840, and promoted the development of several inland ports on the major waterways of the nation leading to increased exports from once hard to reach regions of the country. Indigenous partisans rose up against Adamantine forces at the Battle of Papoli Creek, resulting in the massacre of several hundreds of indigenous peoples. The discontent among the indigenous tribes lead to the formal creation of the Confederacy of Nine Nations, which led half a century long war against the Adamantine state. Piedmonte, seeking to establish a centralized capitol city, launched the construction of the planned city of Porto Pellegrini on August 4 1843. The planned city was established over the former settlements of Almeiveira, Camporaele and Paremunde. Support for the relocation of the capitol city from Sarro to Porto Pellegrini evaporated among the Baroni shortly after construction began, and the transfer of government would not be completed until 1862.
Ongoing raids by the Confederacy and dwindling immigration caused the Baroni Bovini to turn on Piedmonte during the 1844 presidential election, leading to the accession of Gilberto Bongiorno (1810-1867). Gilberto, a Baroni himself, was adamant about the continuation of the expansion of the labor pool by any means necessary. Among his most extreme proposals was to introduce the practice of slavery nationwide. Within the constitution the practice of slavery was strictly forbidden, forcing a constitutional crisis in 1845 when Bongiorno issued an executive order allowing the practice in all the admitted provinces and organized territories. The Constitutional Court of Adamantina, composed of judges selected by presidents aligned with the Baroni, sided with the president in his decision. Legislators and governors from the coastal provinces defected from Bongiorno, leading to the creation of the Unitari-Federalisti Party. Bongiorno and the Baroni, threatened by the prospects of losing the 1846 congressional elections established the Liberal National Party. The Unitari-Federalisti won in a landslide in the populated provinces in the Chamber of Representatives, and a majority of senators had aligned with the party. Early during the legislative secession of 1848 the National Congress passed the Free Soil Act, which prohibited the practice of slavery. Bongiorno vetoed the bill, but was overruled by a majority within the National Congress. The Constitutional Court intervened on behalf of Bongiorno, and prevented the passage of the Free Soil Act. Newly elected Unitari-Federalisti congressmen pushed for the admission of two provinces, which were primarily inhabited by small landowners; Campialti and Monfalcone (1848).
The decision within the court caused a series of riots in Sano Stefano, Semerillo, Casanova and Castiglione, with federal buildings being burned and ransacked. The first ship transporting slaves to the Port of Pellegrini was met with a group of rioters, who refused the ship full of Bahian slaves to empty into the city. Romualdo Mottola, constable of the city of Porto Pellegrini commandeered the ship and assisted the slaves in killing their captors. Governor of Arata Cleandro Semeraro, a supporter of racial exclusionary laws and abolitionist, activated the province's militia and began seizing ports under federal control. Semeraro assisted Mottola by providing several weeks rations to the freed men of the ADN Perrotti, who set sail for Estmere colony of Imagua. In Casanova a ship carrying Gowsa slaves were massacred by a group of Euclean-Adamantine vigilantes, who then afterwards sank the ship within the port. Bongiorno, fearing a second civil war, rescinded his executive order and conceded to the National Congress. Marciano Santel (1823-1862), a general within the Adamantine Army, capitalized on the ongoing unrest and led a coup d'etat, ousting Bongiorno and the Constitutional Court on June 3 1848.
Santel Regime (1849-1862)
The National Congress hailed Santel a hero of the republic, awarding several decorations for his actions. Cleandro Semeraro announced his intentions to run for president, delivering his credentials to the interim president Santel on August 3 1848. Santel rejected Semeraro's credentials, announcing his intentions to hold the position of presidency until control could be restored within the nation. The Senate elected Santel to the presidency, formally granting him presidential powers. During his first presidential term he established a dictatorship backed by state terrorism that dictated all aspects of society. Elections became a farce and the legislature and judiciary became docile instruments of his regime. While formal elections continued, he and a group of nine military warlords ruled the country. Santel meticulously created a cult of personality around himself, which was forced upon the population and the already demoralized clergy. Throughout his presidency he held complete control over the state's bureaucracy, as well as his appointed cabinet. Prior to the 1852 presidential elections he became the undisputed leader of the Unitari-Federalisti, at the dismay of many political leaders who initially founded the party.
Santel personally enriched himself during the San Loreto Gold Rush, while also leading a brutal genocide of the indigenous peoples pushed into the territory by the Indigenous Deportation Act of 1839. Immigration floundered as the country became know for its despotic leader and deteriorating labor conditions. The lower social strata of Porto Pellegrini and various other coastal cities were forcefully moved into the mining communities of San Loreto, a systematic process known as the Santel Relocations. During the forced population transfers the San Loreto Valley saw a dramatic period of growth, while the northern provinces saw a dramatic decrease in population. During his reign several thousands of citizens died during long treks across the interior, including men, women and children. Those who spoke against Santel faced extreme repression, with opponents being executed extrajudicially. Conditions within the country deteriorated as the state sought to focus on mineral extraction and industrialization over maintaining agricultural production.
Santel turned his ambitions on Gaullican Dominion of Satucin, specifically on the territory of Nouveau Sessonis, which he viewed as an integral part of Adamantina. Throughout the dictators military career, he viewed the territory as being essential to achieving maritime power within the Arucian Sea. On 15 August 1860 the Adamantine National Congress, at the direction of Santel, declared war on the Dominion of Satucin. This act inevitably drew Gaullica into the war. While Adamantina was initially successful during the conflict with the defeat of Satucin forces at the Battle of Malhivert, the war quickly turned in favor of Satucin and Gaullica. This progress was halted after the initiation of a blockade on Porto Pellegrini by the Gaullican Navy. Failing to recognize discontent within the nation, Santel refused to end the war after several opportunities were provided by Gaullican officials. Rebel forces arose in the provinces of Arata, Castello, Campialti, Monfalcone, catching Santel's retreating army at the Battle of Ramiseto. Santel was never found after the the battle, with historians believing he either died during the battle or fled into the wilderness of Alcalina. On July 4 1862 the Adamantine delegation to Gaullica signed the Treaty of Perino, ending all hostilities between the two nations. The provincial governments of rebel provinces established the Temporary State of National Restoration, a special committee that prevented any officials associated with the Santel regime from running for political office within the next six federal elections. The Unitari-Federalisti Party was disbanded and the various provincial warlords who assisted Santel were executed.
Restoration Period (1862-1880)
In the aftermath of the Santel regime, the Baroni Bovini sought to reestablish its economic and political strength within the republic. The most influential of the post-Santel bovine barons included Edilberto Li Causi (1827-1901), a Senator from the province of Monfalcone. Causi and his allies within the National Congress reestablished the National Liberal Party, and were the majority element of the Committee for the Temporary State of National Restoration. From 1862 to 1864 the committee ruled as a directorial executive, with Causi, Augusto Ciriello (1823-1898), Saladino Stagnaro (1810-1875), Melanio Gregori (1829-1909) and Ulstano Vacanti (1820-1899) serving as interim co-presidents. During the directorial period, the republic saw the admission of three provinces on December 11 1861; Rieti (from Castello), Argenta and San Loreto (both from San Loreto Territory). On September 10 1862 the Federal District of Pellegrini was established and the city of Porto Pellegrini was designated as the capitol city of Adamantina.
Causi and his committee disqualified sixteen candidates prior to the 1864 presidential election. The majority of the disqualifications were illegally fabricated, although they were never challenged as public support for Causi was high and ant-Santel sentiments were pervasive. Causi and the Baroni hand selected Aniceto Favara (1827-1911) to become the next president of the republic. The committee allowed the subpar oppositional candidate, Orlando Santin (1811-1872), to run against Favara during election. Favara won the presidency with 24 of the 26 votes within the Senate. Immigration to Adamantina increased substantially during the 1860s as economic conditions with the country recovered from Santel's regime.
In the newly established capitol of Porto Pellegrini Euclean culture flourished as the wealthy elites appetite for theatre and art grew insatiable. The first incarnation of the Porto Pellegrini Palladium was completed in 1861, preforming operas composed by Vitiello and Gioachino. Adamantina saw a increase in immigration from Etruria's rural north, Luzela, Esmeira and Tosutonia throughout the 1860s and 1870s. Favara's presidential successor, Auberto Casassa (1834-1914) was handpicked by the Committee of the Temporary State. The delegation at the National Liberal Party Convention selected Casassa through a unanimous verbal vote six months prior the the election.
Industrialists who sought to see the implementation of tariffs to protect the development of domestic industry began to break away from the agriculturally focused Baroni Bovini. While Adamantina saw a dramatic growth in agricultural production during the early period of National Restoration it significantly lagged behind the world in mechanization. With consecutive governments promoting policies of agricultural development and exportation, Adamantina grew to being of the largest exporters of foodstuffs in the world. From 1866 to 1911 Adamantine wheat exports grew from 96,234 to 2,300,000 t (107,782 to 2,576,000 short tons), while frozen beef exports increased from 22,300 to 355,000 t (24,976 to 397,600 short tons). The government slowly introduced minor tariffs to support industrialization efforts as the prestige and influence of the Baroni dwindled during the middle of Casassa's administration.
While most agricultural goods were primarily shipped via barges, some more far flung communities struggled to bring goods to the inland ports. Casassa, hoping to placate both the industrialists and the Baroni Bovini, embarked on a national effort to develop railways through the passage of the Adamantine Railroad Act of 1868. The act established the company United Provinces Rail Road, a state-owned corporation that was put in charge the nation's rail system. Several of the earliest steam locomotives were imported from Estmere and other Euclean states. The government laid roughly 29,000 km (18,019 mi) of rail throughout the country between 1864 and 1911. Cattle cars were popularized within the country, and Porto Pellegrini became the site of several of the worlds largest meat processing stockyards. On July 1 1879 the provinces of Panzarella and Alcalina were admitted to the republic, organized from the Panzarella Territory.
The influence of the Baroni and the Committee of the Temporary State dwindled as new industries arose within Adamantina. Wealthy railroad businessmen and industrial tycoons began supporting candidates of the newly established Federal Democratic Party (Partito Democratico Federale). The Federal Democrats supported increasing tariffs, instituting universal compulsory education, expanding the rail network and promoting the establishment of a central bank which would utilize a gold standard. During this 1874, 1876 and 1878 elections the Federal Democrats won significant victories within the National Congress, although they were unable to secure a majority within the Senate. It became a priority of the party to establish universal manhood suffrage, regardless of landownership status. The Baroni aligned Senate refused to pass the amendment prior to the 1876 midterm election, dealing a crushing blow to the Federal Democrats intentions of taking the Senate and presidency.
Amone Lo Bello (1832-1909), a wealthy mining businessmen from San Loreto had lobbied the federal government for roughly six years to expand railroad access to the city of Casamassella to no avail. Bello who was a staunch opponent to the Baroni began buying up land to sell to landless urban men, as election laws required that a man own half an acre to be eligible to vote. The efforts to expand voting access became a popular endeavor among the industrialist of the country, who began elaborate campaigns to distribute roughly 250,000 plots of half acre lots of undesirable land to landless men. The Senate attempted to stop the sale of land through legislative and judicial means but were unsuccessful. The stunt by Bello effectively made roughly 250,000 men the majority vote within the provinces of Argenta, Rieti, Panzarella, Alcalina, Monfalcone and Campialti. The coastal provincial governments feared that the land redistribution would diminish their dominance within the Chamber of Representatives, causing many to turn on the Committee of the Temporary State and the Baroni. The National Liberal Party fell apart during the political crisis, and those who had splintered away joined the Federal Democrats to call the 1879 constitutional convention. Amendments were ratified on May 1 1879, granting universal suffrage to all Euclean men above the age of 25. The amendments to the constitution also removed the provincial legislatures involvement in the selection of delegates to the electoral college. The 1880 election marked the first time in Adamantine history that a portion of the general population would have a say in the election of the president.
Era of Enfranchisement and Stabilization (1880-1913)
With the breakup of the National Liberal Party, the Federal Democratic Party ascended as the dominant political entity leading up to the 1880 presidential election. Disgruntled by how previous parties had elected their candidates at conventions, the Federal Democratic Party established a primary system which would allow party members to elect the candidates. Aleandro Fabiani (1843-1916) was selected as the nominee for the party, facing off against Simone Fanelli (1834-1910) of the Conservative Civic Union. While only 18.2% of the population was eligible to vote in the general election, the nation underwent the largest election in its history. Political parties utilized grassroot efforts to elect like minded politicians to federal and provincial offices. Party discipline was relatively weak initially with most elections been candidate driven. The Conservative Civic Union preformed well in the more populated and economically prosperous northeast while the Federal Democrats secured its victory through the provinces surrounding Porto Pellegrini and the rural south. Fabiani was inaugurated on January 1 1881 at the footsteps of the newly completed Capitol Building of Adamantina, announcing a series of reforms and appointments that drew the ire of both the cattle barons and the industrialists.
Fanelli installed nine new justices to the Constitutional Court and passed a series of bills that dramatically shifted the direction of Adamantina. Among the most consequential of these bills was the 1881 Law of Universal Secular Education, providing universal, compulsory, free and secular education to all male citizens of the republic. All parochial schools were forbidden from issuing degrees, substantially decreasing the enrollment of schools affiliated with the Solarian Catholic Church. During the 1882 legislative session he created the Federal Registry of Adamantina (Registro Federale), an index of all births, deaths and marriages. Religious symbols were forbidden on federal property in 1883 and several presidential executive decrees stripped the large properties of the Archdiocese of Porto Pellegrini. During Fanelli's administration, the Bishop of Solaria broke off all diplomatic relations with Adamantina. Fanelli was reelected again in 1884 and proceeded with his legislative agenda to decrease the influence of the wealthy cattle barons through the implementation of a land value tax based on total acreage owned. The land value tax proportionally affected large landowners without harming industrial sites.
Adamantina's military held clandestine negotiations with Aucuria during the onset of the War of the Arucian regarding the possibility of attacking Satucin to gain the province of Nouveau Sessonis. Fanelli forced the meetings to cease after entering into negotiations with Gaullica over maintaining Adamantine access to the Arucian Gates. Fanelli ceased conversations with Aucuria in 1884, although no official agreement between Adamantina and Gaullica. The actions of Fanelli led to many within the military to question his leadership, resulting in a failed coup d'état. Events surrounding the coup attempt were investigated heavily throughout the remainder of Fanelli's term, resulting in the purge of several high ranking officials within the military.
The policy programs of the Federal Democratic Party continued through the late 1880s and early 1890s with the selection of Gianmario Sciandra (1851-1932) during the 1888 presidential election. Adamantina became a major producer in textiles during this period, focusing on coarse fabrics. Cotton production grew significantly as land for cattle was becoming less and less prioritized within the frontier. Sciandra increased tariffs on textiles from Euclean states in an effort to protect emerging markets. The additional tariffs caused backlash Estmere and Gaullica, resulting in a reduction in agricultural exports.
Sciandra established the Porto Pellegrini Polytechnic University in 1891 in an effort to foster scientific and industrial innovation. Adamantine scientists focused on standardization and the adoption of interchangeble parts. Employment in agricultural production decreased to 54% in 1895, with the remainder being employed in the tertiary and secondary sectors of the economy. In 1896 the first industrial blast furnace was opened in Porto Pellegrini, utilizing raw material from San Loreto. The drastic shift in economy led to labor shortage, exacerbated by lagging immigration quotas. These factors led a decrease in agricultural production and increase in inflation.
Citizens unsatisfied with the direction of the country turned on the Federal Democratic Party during the 1890 midterms. Alberto Casassa (1858-1943), son of former president Auberto Casassa and candidate of the Conservative Civic Union, won the 1896 presidential election. Casassa ended the tariffs enacted by Fabiani and Sciandra and began an aggressive policy of promoting immigration. Religious schools returned to importance within Adamantine society and religious services resumed within government facilities. Industrial subsidies were cancelled and several firms declared bankruptcy causing a short period of urban unemployment. The nation's decentralized currency caused a period of extreme periods of inflation, devaluation and economic uncertainty resulting in the 1896–1898 recession. Agricultural employment increased and the gains in urbanization made during the two decades prior were reversed. Wages stabilized by 1901 and immigration tempted by high wages resumed, with increasing immigration from Soravia, Scovern and Ravnia. These recent immigrants formed their own communities in Monfalcone, Panzarella and Alcalina. Railways into the interior were expanded by foreign investments and the nation's rails were privatized in 1899 with the passage of the 1899 Adamantine Rail Act. Increased access to the interior pressured the government to formally admit the last unorganized region of the country; Montagna Territory. The National Congress admitted the provinces of Iglesias and Montagna on November 21 1898. The admission of the two provinces led to a call to recognize indigenous male voters, with heavy opposition from both the Federal Democratic Party and the Conservative Civic Union.
During the 1904 presidential election, the Conservative Civic Union held onto government power with the election of Giuseppe Costa (1849-1921). Costa reintroduced some tariffs on manufacturing goods in an attempt to revive industrial centers surrounding Porto Pellegrini, fearing a rise in councilism. The tariffs had little to effect on the revitalization of closed industries, leading to a series public of demonstrations in 1905. Social and economics tensions flared in 1906 with the failed assassination attempt on Costa. In response the government conducted a series of political crackdowns on trade unions and small left wing parties. Costa and the Conservative Civic Union established the Congressional Committee on Seditious and Insubordinate Activities to remove councilist elements within society, but also utilized the committee to target their political enemies within the the Federal Democratic Party.
Several members of the Conservative Civic Union cautioned Costa on the ongoing political situation during his reelection run in the 1908 presidential election. The party experienced it first contested primary, which resulted in a disastrous convention. Costa departed from the Conservative Civic Union and established the Constitutional Democratic Party. Costa embraced the industrialists seeking to reestablished political dominance, ultimately upending the power coalition behind the Federal Democratic Party. In a three way race, the electoral college for the selection of the presidency was unable to determine a victor. The Chamber of Representatives held a special secession to select the president by simple majority, resulting in the election of Conservative Civic Union candidate Luigi Aleramo (1861-1911).
Adamantina experienced a period of relative growth under the moderate conservative Aleramo, who sought balanced growth among the two competing economic constituencies. The Federal Democratic Party and the Conservative Civic Union jointly passed legislation to mandate secret ballots and banned the provincial usage of oral ballot casting. The legislation was taken to the Constitutional Court where it was overturned and was instead left up to the provinces. The decision marked the beginning of the Federalist Revival Period in Adamantina, where adherence to limited powers under the constitution became the norm and provinces regained a greater degree in policy making. The National Congress established the Federal Monetary Authority in 1910, created by the passage of the Federal Monetary Act. The central bank was created to set the monetary policy of the nation by stabilizing the currency, controlling interest rates and aiding in alleviating unemployment. From 1910–1913 the GDP of the country increased at an annual rate of 6.8%, and industry grew by 9.1%.
Great Collapse and the April Putsch (1913-1923)
Aleramo died in office on December 9 1911, turning control of the executive to conservative vice-president Giuliano Castellani (1863-1947). Castellani rode on the coat tales of his successful predecessor and was elected in a landslide during the 1912 presidential election. The pervious decades of agricultural subsidies and investment allowed for a general glut of beef and agricultural goods to build up within the global market. The global collapse in beef consumption, brought upon by the Great Collapse sent the country into an economic recession and permanently halted economic expansion. When faced with a series of budget shortages, Castellani refused to lower taxes and instead increased them. The government abandoned the gold standard in May 1914 and the currency was aggressively devalued by the Federal Monetary Authority to increase the competitiveness of its exports. Wages and purchasing power declined significantly, although unemployment never rose above 15%.
Economic conditions caused unrest and the public voted against Castellani and his party during the 1914 midterm election. The newly formed Social Democratic Labor Party, a reformist party sprung from the Councilist Party of Adamantina, made significant gains within the Chamber of Representatives although unable to establish a majority. Immigration was significantly curtailed during this period and those who sought to relocate to Adamantina were required to have jobs with a employer prior to arrival. Manufacturing declined and unemployment continued to increase in urban areas, with highest rates of unemployment hitting the provinces of Castello, Arata, Prosperita and the Federal District of Pellegrini. Several large scale demonstrations occurred across Adamantina, resulting in the prolong period known as the Tragic Month. Between 500 and 1,000 were reportedly dead from the clashes between the government and protestors. Three Senators, two mayors and one cabinet official were assassinated during the period, prompting the government to initiate martial law nation wide.
Castellani believed that the government actions would curb unrest and secure the election for his party and himself during the 1916 general election. Citizens were escorted to ballots and a atmosphere of political intimidation hovered over the nation. Castellani faced off against Antonello Dellepiane (1871-1949), the candidate for the Social Democrats and Parmenio Mancini (1869-1941), the candidate for the Federal Democrats. Dellepiane secured a total of 63 electoral votes, and received a popular vote of 483,649 in the 1916 presidential election. The new government established the Federal Recovery Commission (FRC) in 1917 which began buying up bankrupt assets across Adamantina, dilapidated land and failing farmsteads. Prime agricultural, industrial and residential real estate across the country was consolidated under the commission. Provincial governments sued the federal government in 1918 over the confiscation of lands, who were unable to tax federally owned land. The political struggle between the federal government and the provincial legislatures led to a highly publicized constitutional court case that ultimately handed the federal government a victory. During the 1918 midterm elections the Social Democratic Party's coalition with the Federal Democratic Party in the Senate fell apart, ending the party's legislative efforts.
Fashion, leisure and cultural activities within Adamantina dwindled during the Great Collapse. Dyes necessary for colored clothing became expensive, forcing many within the nation to accept more neutral colors. Proteins remained available to most of the public, although there was significant shortages in butter, sugar and salt. Coffee, a national staple, was also in shortage throughout the Great Collapse. Dellepiane attempted to remedy this shortage by establishing beef-for-coffee exchanges with Ceneria and Arbolada, but these agreements ultimately failed. The Standard Chemical of Adamantina began manufacturing coffee substitute in 1919 in an effort to relieve the nation. Immigration to Adamantina throughout the Great Collapse remained steady as many from Euclea sought employment within the country, increasing xenophobic and nativist sentiments arose as immigrants and native workers had to compete for jobs in the already poor labor market. The National Functionalist Party was established during the heightened period of prejudice, recruiting many within the Adamantine Armed Forces.
Antonello Dellepiane faced off against Conservative Civic Union candidate Fortino Amabile (1872-1964) and Federal Democratic candidate Parmenio Mancini during the 1920 presidential election. Dellepiane won his original coalition of provinces along with four additional provinces in the southwest. Amabile carried the northeastern states along with picking up the state of Sarno from the Federal Democrats. Mancini resigned as leader of the Federal Democratic Party in the aftermath of the election. The Social Democrats secured a majority within the Senate and the House and resumed their legislative agenda in 1921. Adamantina's National Congress passed the Federal Roadway Act of 1921, the Rural Modernization Act of 1921, and passed additional legislation that created the Federal Food Inspection Commission (FFIC), the Federal Interprovince Commerce Commission (FICC) and the Federal Agricultural Commission (FAC). The constitution was amended in 1922 to allow the federal government to levy an income tax and corporate tax. The Federal Revenue Collection Commission (FRCC) was created with the intent to collect taxes without involvement from the provincial governments, causing a series of court battles between the federal government and various provinces.
Corporations and the remaining beef barons of Adamantina aligned themselves with the Conservative Civic Union in reaction to the introduction of corporate taxes, and began devising a plan to overthrow Dellepiane in December of 1922. General of the Adamantine Army Ermanno Del Nero (1861-1941) recruited several military officers during the early months of 1923. Domezio Andreoni (1876-1964), the Governor of Lucentezza, was recruited by Del Nero to assume control of the federal government in the aftermath of the coup. Andreoni and Del Nero developed close relations with the National Functionalist Party, who were utilized to antagonize workers within the urban areas aligned with the Social Democrats. On April 3 1923 the Federal Carabinieri raided the headquarters of Conservative Civic Union and Department of National Defense in Porto Pellegrini. Fighting broke out between the Carabinieri and the Army, with the Army successful in repelling the federal police. Del Nero activated his garrison in Porto Pellegrini shortly after the raid, engaging in intense street shootouts with the Porto Pellegrini Police Department, beginning the 1923 coup d'état. The Army encircled Porto Pellegrini for six days, and on April 7 took the Federal Palace and the Capitol Building. The National Congress was dissolved and those affiliated with the Social Democrats and Federal Democratic Party were detained. Dellepiane and his cabinet refused to surrender to Del Nero while barricade within a conference room within the Federal Palace and were ultimately killed. The Constitutional Court was taken hostage by the Army and was forced to formally declare Domezio Andreoni as president. Shortly after the declaration all thirteen of the justices of the court were forced to resign, and all the actions undertaken by Dellepiane were declared null by a presidential decree by Andreoni.
Great War and the Andreoni Regime (1923-1939)
Dissent within the Conservative Civic Union ensured after the dissolve of the constitutional court, with many rank-and-file members calling for constitutional rule and the resignation of Andreoni. Several provincial parties affiliated with the Conservative Civic Union declared their formal separation from the nationwide party, establishing the Constitutional Conservative Union. Former presidents Giuliano Castellani and Luigi Aleramo, both bitter enemies of Social Democratic Labor, condemned the the coup d'état and joined the Constitutional Conservative Union. On August 1 1923 the military dissolved the Conservative Civic Union and labeled its members as councilist collaborators. Andreoni and his closest supporters in government formed the Front for Patriotic Renewal, which was heavily supported by the Adamantine Armed Forces. Patriotic Renewal established a formal charter on September 10 1923, which endorsed national conservatism, right-wing populism, Adamantine nationalism, anti-councilism and corporatism. While Andreoni served as the civil leader of the nation, all activities were controlled by the Federal Commission for National Construction (FCNC), the military junta behind the government.
The various social welfare programs established by Dellepiane were dissolved, although the constitutional income tax remained. Andreoni launched the nation's first five-year plan (1923–1928), which sought to rapidly industrialize the country without interference from labor unrest. Labor unions were deemed illegal and assemblies of workers were brutally disbanded. Regulations on industries were disbanded and the various government agencies that provided oversight were dissolved. On December 11 1923, Andreoni appointed thirteen loyalists to the Constitutional Court and the Adamantine Constitution was overhauled significantly and voting rights were significantly curbed. Leading up to the 1924 Adamantine general election a series of laws were drafted to candidates from the opposition from running. From 1924 to 1944 only members of the Front for Patriotic Renewal were allowed to run in federal, provincial and local elections.
Andreoni turned on the remaining cattle barons within the country, introducing a series of tariffs in an effort to energize the industrial capacity of the country. Technicians from the Porto Pellegrini Polytechnic University were introduced as advisors to cabinet to formally oversee the development of internal industry. In 1924 the Porto Pelligrini Shipyard was converted from commercial use to construct warships for the Euclean powers during the global naval arms race. The ships departing for Euclea were never fitted with military weaponry and were sold as commercial vessels in an effort to bypass international laws regarding naval buildup. The government aligned itself with ten families, known as the Decagrammo, to coordinate the financing of various industrial firms of the country. Reina was established as an automotive company in 1925 and Sasso was established in 1926 as a petroleum company, fueling the initial beginnings of mass ownership of vehicles in Adamantina. The National Congress, at the direction of Reina, passed the National Road Act of 1926 to support the development of nation highways.
Adamantina opened dialogue with Etruria in 1925 as tensions flared between the Grand Alliance and the Entente. President Andreoni made a series of visits to Etruria, Aucuria and Belmonte to discuss the possibility of containing the Gaullican Dominion of Satucin, but was concerned that two Asterias Inferior nations were incapable of maintaining a land force necessary to repel the Satucin Army. Fearing that Satucin may attack the Adamantine government hastily built a series of defensive fortifications along the San Loreto River. The Adamantine Army, fearing the numerical number of the Satucin Army began focusing on the development and deployment of chemical weaponry. Preparations for the defense of the nation were incomplete during the onset of the Great War and many within the government sought to collaborate with the Entente. President Andreoni declared an official position of neutrality. Adamantina became a popular destination for conscientious objectors from Satucin, who illegally crossed the border settling into the unguarded borderlands of Monfalcone and Panzarella. Adamatina's neutrality and healthy domestic economy prompted additional immigration to the nation, resulting in a 22.42% increase in population in 1930 and a 20.45% increase in 1940. The Great War would be the last instance where the nation's decennial census recorded population increases of more than 20%.
In the post-war Adamnatina the economy continued to flourish and the government returned to addressing internal affairs. In 1936 Ivanoe Martucci began recruiting officers to overthrown Andreoni, and return the Conservative Civic Union to power. Andreoni discovered Martucci's plot and approached the Antonio Malito to quell dissent within the officers corps. On the eve of the planned coup, Malito and his supporters detained Martucci and his allies in a highly sophisticate operation. After a hasty extrajudicial trial, Martucci and his supporters were executed in mass by Malito's forces. Malito was promoted as Deputy Secretary of Defense after the reelection of Andreoni during the 1936 presidential election. Labor shortages resumed in 1937, prompting widespread labor unrest throughout the later half of the decade. Informal worker organizations across the country established the Confederation of Labor and Assembly of Industrial Organizations (CLAIO) in 1938, creating a wide network of organizers and agitators for the once defunct labor unions. Railroad workers and port workers in Porto Pellegrini initiated a strike action that inspired more actions across the country; culminating into the 1939 Adamantine General Strike. Support for Andreoni deteriorated significantly in the aftermath of the general strike, leading Malito to organize several military commanders to depose the longtime president.
Solarian War and Malitoism (1939-1953)
On the night of July 3, 1939 military officers and supporters within the National Guard moved quickly to take control of key government buildings, including the Federal Palace, the National Congress building, and the headquarters of the Adamantine Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), the state operated broadcasting service. By early morning of July 4, 1939 most of the government and their collaborators had been arrested; including the president, members of the judiciary and legislature. After the capitol was under the effective control of Malito's supporters, the inteirm government declared a state of emergency and enacted a strict curfew. On July 5, 1939 Antonio Malito delivered a radio broadcast to the population declaring that the upcoming 1940 elections would be free and fair and that the military would safeguard the democratic institutions of the republic. Several academics, economists and former administrators of the Dellepiane and Mancini governments were invited to run the Interim Committee for the Restoration of the Adamantine Republic (ICRAR), the temporary council established to run the government leading up to the 1940s elections. Ettore Caviglia, the leader of the Greater Solarian Republic condemned the the coup and demanded that Andreoni be extradited to Etruria. Malito and the Interim Committee declined the request by the Solarian Republic, instead putting the former president on trial.
Brancaleone Polino (1889-1967) reestablished the Social Democratic Labor Party with the assistance of the Confederation of Labor and Antonio Malito. Parmenio Mancini, the elder leader of the banned Federal Democratic Party appointed Donatella Corsetti (1901-1974) as his successor. Fortino Ambaile, the presidential candidate for the Conservative Civic Union returned to lead his party leading up to the elections. Families of the Decagrammo were split in their support for Corsetti and Ambaile, leading to fears that the two candidates would allow for the Social Democrats to win the presidential election. Dellepiane, the aging but popular former president of the republic came out in support of Polino and Malito. Polino won the 1940 presidential election, marking the first free election in 15 years. Within the legislature the Federal Democrats and the Conservative Civic Union established a coalition and opposed the legislative reforms proposed by Polino.
Adamantina became one of the largest exporters of beef and canned goods during the early 20th century. During the onset of the Great War Adamantina remained neutral, trading with both sides. By 1929 CE its trade of agricultural goods with the Entente was forced to end after the Grand Alliance threatened to increase tariffs on Adamantina. Unable to compete with the power of Satucin, it accepted the terms of the Grand Alliance. Throughout out the Great War, the country lagged economically. In 1939 the government of supported the coalition of conservatives and social democrats in Azure Coast against the Vague Rouge.
During the 1943 Solarian War, Adamantina remained neutral while maintaining trade relations with the Etrurian Revolutionary Republic. After the defeat of Etruria, Adamantina provided many collaborators of the defeated regime sanctuary. In 1950 the collaborators wielded a great deal of political clout and were known as the Cabala delle Ombre. In 1953 the Cabala supported a military coup, supervising the establishment of a military junta. The deposed President Antonio Malito fled to Valorea, where he supported democratic reformers and revolutionaries. In 1968 the military junta launched several small scale skirmishes over various adjacent lands, being defeated in each attempt. In 1975 the Junta was destroyed during a popular democratic revolution, leading to Antonio Malito's return in 1976.
"Communique Number 1 of the Committee of Democratic Restoration. You, the Adamantine population are informed that as of this date the country is under the operational control of the Central Command of the Adamantine Armed Forces."
Malito served as president until his death in 1989. His wife, Ginevra Malito served as president for 8 years after his death. From 1990 until 1997 the nation faced economic woes which ultimately saw Malito's party thrown out of power. From 1997 to 2008, a coalition of center and center-right parties governed. In 2009 the center-right fell out of favor, leading to a newly established "anti-corruption" party winning the election. In 2014 the center-right party returns to power during an economic recession. In 2018, the now deceased Malito's party returned to power.
The Adamantine Republic covers a total area of 997,989 square kilometers (385,326 sq mi), ranking as the sixth largest country in Asteria Inferior, and the fourteenth largest country in the Asterias. The highest elevation in the Adamantine Republic is Mount Libertà, located in San Loreto at 6,961 metres (22,838 ft). The lowest point in the country is a manmade polder located in the delta of the Pellegrini River between Prosperita and Porto Pellegrini at -8 feet (-2 meters) below sea level. Its southern border is created by the Sierra Bianca mountain range. It shares a border with Gapolania to its east and Satucin to the west. In the north its coasts borders the East Arucian Sea.
The country is divided into six geographic regions; Costal (Costa), Lowland Plains (Pianure di pianura), Highlands (Altopiani), Mountain (Montagna), Piedmont (Piemonte) and Valley (Valle)
Adamantina has four main climatic regions; warm, moderate, cool arid and hot arid, all of which are determined by variations in latitude, range in altitude and relief features. Most of the population lives in relatively temperate. Settlements within the southernmost interior are located within microclimates generated by the varied altitude. Summers are the warmest and wettest season in most of Adamantina, except with certain parts of the southern interior where its the driest season.
The nation's coastal regions are tempered by a cold ocean current from the Haillet Sea, creating an oceanic climate (Cfb) with mean temperatures of 10 °C (50 °F) during the winter and a mean temperature of 25 °C (77 °F) during the summer. The majority of the interior, where it is not mountainous, is classified as a humid subtropical climate (Cfa, Cwa), where temperatures range from 0 °C (32 °F) or −3 °C (27 °F) and 18 °C (64 °F) during the coldest months and temperatures ranging from 19 °C (66 °F) to 29 °C (84.4 °F) during the summer. The interior plains experiences strong thunderstroms during the spring and summer, with rainfall ranging from 38 to 50 inches (970 to 1,300 mm) per year. Lightning and tornados are a common occurrence throughout the subtropical interior of the country.
The southeast interior is greatly affected by the drastic increase in elevation, where precipitation dramatically drops off. The rise in elevation leads to an orographic lift, where air is forced upwards, leading to adiabatic cooling, causing moist air to reach its dew point and ultimately descended as rain. Past this region of increased rainfall, precipitation falls dramatically and transitions into a semi-arid climate (BSh, BSk). In the southernmost interior the elevation transitions into a cold desert climate (BWk), where precipitation ranges between 25 and 200 mm (1 and 8 in) of rainfall annually. In an excluded valley within the mountains is the only instance of a hot desert climate (BWh), known as the Inospitale Valley where temperatures range between 29 and 35 °C (84 and 95 °F) during the summer.
Chamber of Representatives
Opposition Solidarista: 44 seats
National-Modernità: 41 seats
Opposition Solidarista: 25 seats
National-Modernità: 13 seats
Throughout the 19th and 20th century, Adamantina transitioned between various periods of democracy and dictatorships. In 1953 the country faced its most dramatic reversal in democracy which saw the establishment of a military junta known as the Ombre Junta, controlled by the Cabala delle Ombre. Full-scale democracy was reestablished during the 1976 elections, and has since experienced consecutive peaceful transfers of political power.
Adamantina is a symmetrical federal constitutional representative democracy. It is the sole nation on the continent to utilize a presidential system, where the president is both head of state and head of government. The president serves as the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and is the highest-ranking officer within the federal bureaucracy. The government is regulated by a series of checks and balances and duties of the governmental are enshrined within the constitution, establishing a seperation of powers among the executive, legislative and judicial branches. Comprised of seventeen provinces and a single federal district, citizens are subject to three levels of government; federal, provincial and local governments. Local governments duties are commonly split between the subprefecture, the township and municipality. At the provincial level, all governments are required by the federal constitution to operate in a manner similar to the national government (with a guiding constitution, an executive, provincial courts and legislature).
The seat of government is the city of Porto Pellegrini as designated by the the legislature, which belongs to a special federal district separate from the the seventeen other provinces; the Federal District of Pellegrini. There is not distinction in powers between the provinces and the federal district, as the Federal District has equal representation within the legislature and is able to participate in presidential elections.
The National Congress is a bicameral legislature, comprised of the Senate and the Chamber of Representatives. The National Congress creates federal law, declares war, approves treaties and has the power of the purse. It is also the only institution with the ability to impeach members of governments (including the president). Enactment of primary legislation requires a concurrent majority within the Chamber of Representatives and a supermajority within the Senate. Formal communication between the Senate and the Chamber of Representatives is conducted through joint sessions, joint committees and conferences.
The Senate is the upper house of the National Assembly and is composed of two senators from each provinces, with a total of thirty-six senators seated within the chamber. Senators are elected on six-year terms and elections are staggered based on three cohorts, with both seats in each state having to belong in a separate cohort. Eight provinces have senators belonging to cohorts one and two, five provinces with senators belonging to cohorts one and three and four provinces and one federal district with senators belonging to cohorts two and three. The Senate has several powers of advice and consent, including the approval of treaties, confirmation of the cabinet secretaries, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, ambassadors and other federal executive officials. The senate is considered to be more prestigious of the two bodies due to its longer terms, smaller size and provincewide constituencies.
The Chamber of Representatives is the lower house of the National Assembly and is composed of 85 voting members. Seats are appropriated among the provinces by population decennially, after an official census has been concluded. As of 2020, the Province of Iglesias has only two representatives while the Federal District of Pellegrini has thirty, San Loreto has the second largest delegation with seventeen members. The Chamber is charged with the passage of federal legislation, and has a series of exclusive powers; the initiation of all bills concerning the federal budget, impeachment of federal officials, and elects the president if no candidate receives a majority within the Electoral Assembly. Compared with the Senate, the Chamber is considered less prestigious due to its larger size, shorter terms and its vulnerability to redistricting.
In the executive branch the President is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and has the power to veto legislation before they become laws subject to the override of the National Congress. The president appoints federal officials who enforce federal laws and policies, and has the ability to dismiss members of the cabinet and employees of the federal government. Presidents of Adamantina have the ability to utilize pocket vetos, line-item vetos and signining statements in an effort to direct, kill or modify legislation without utilizing an official veto. Presidents have the power to call a special session of one or both the houses of the National Congress, and has the authority to issue a series of directives; proclamations, executive orders and memorandums. Under the 1976 Constitution, the president serves for a term of four years and is eligible to serve for two consecutive terms, and may be elected again after an interval of one term has passed. The current president is Almerigo Cianflone Di Martino, who was elected in 2020.
The judicial system of Adamantina is divided between the provincial courts and the federal courts. At the federal level, justices for the Constitutional Court and the district appellate courts are appointed by the president with approval from the Senate. Justices at the provincial level are appointed by the governors of the province with approval from the state legislatures. The Judicial Magistrate is the policymaking body for the federal courts, as is responsible for the creation of procedural rules pursuant to federal law. At the federal level the judiciary utilizes judicial precedent as the legal philosophy, while the provincial courts are either observers of common law or civil law. Since the promulgation of the 1976 Constitution the federal judiciary has had a great deal of judicial independence from the executive. Justices at the federal level may serve for life with good behavior, and may be impeached and convicted by the National Congress. Provincial judges may serve for life or may be term limited, dependent on the statues of the province. The Constitutional Court is constitutionally obligated to be composed of five justices. Chief Justice Arduino Gallo, associate justices Marzia Mazzeo, Tancredo Paccioretti, Orsina Fiorentini and Adalfieri Consoli currently sit on the court.
The Adamantine Republic has operated under a two-party system since 1976. For elective offices at most levels, provincial-administered primary elections select party nominees for the general election. Since the 1976 general election, the major parties have been the Solidarista, the National Front, and Modernità which exist only in some provincial legislatures and local offices.
The Solidarista's are considered a spectral-syncretic party, combining elements from the conventional left–right political spectrum and are often called a big tent party. Most politicians affiliated with Solidarista are considered centre-left to left-wing, with many supporting social democracy, labourism and protectionism. The National Front is a conservative party supportive of free-market capitalism and promotes policies of privatization, deregulation and free trade. Modernità is one of Adamantina's centrist political party, supportive of conserative liberalism policies, with some sections of its membership being similar in ideology with the National Front. Modernità grew in popularity after the 1980 election as an anti-corruption political party and has caucused with the National Front at the federal level since 1984, and is a cooperating party with the National Front in most provinces.
Currently in the National Congress, Modernità and the National Front hold a majority in the Senate with twenty members. In the Chamber of Representatives the Solidarista's hold a majority with ninety-eight members. Five states have a party with a government trifecta, Solidarista with three (Arata, San Loreto and the Federal District of Pellegrini), the National Front with three (Iglesias and Alcalina) and (Rieti). The National Front holds eleven of the governors seats and Solidarista holds.
|Map||Province||Capital||Population (2020)||Area (km2)||Flag|
|Federal District||Porto Pellegrini||3,068,043||TBD|
|Pacific Territories||San Giovanni Battista||7,750||TBD|
Although considered a developing nation, Adamantina has a highly literate population, an abundance of natural resources, a diversified industrial base. It has a "very high" rating on the Human Development Index and is considered a middle emerging economy. The Adamantine economy is driven by a strong export sector, with agricultural production, chemical synthetization and manufacturing as its main industries. Adamantine is Asteria Inferior's 4th largest economy, with a national nominal gross domestic product (GDP) estimated at $418.8 billion. Nominally it is ranked 41st, 38th in per capita and 30th in purchasing power parity (PPP). It accounts for roughly 0.72% of the world's GDP (nominal), and 0.92% of the world GDP (PPP).
In 2022 Adamantina had a workforce of 19.4 million, an inflation rate of 5.2%, and an unemployment rate of 4.9%. Since 1992 it has been a member of the Asteria Inferior Common Market (ASTCOM). Adamantina's economy includes agriculture, industry, and a wide range of services. It is the 38th-largest importer and the 32nd-largest exporter as of 2022. Its largest trading partners include Satucin, Senria, Shangea and Rizealand.
Adamantina has the third-largest manufacturing sector in Asterias Inferior, accounting for roughly 37.2% of GDP. Adamantina's industrial capacity supports the production of automobiles, steel, petrochemicals, computers, aircraft, consumer durables, military equipment and naval vessels. In 2018 the industrial growth rate stood at 1.8%, and roughly 17.6% of the total labor force was employed in industrial production.
Science and technology
According to the 2020 census, there is officially 33,498,160 citizens, up from 28,038,938 in 2010. Adamantina is the 38th largest country in the world in total population and fifth in Asteria Inferior. Its population density of 34.26 person per square kilometer of land is below the world average. The population growth rate in 2020 was estimated 1.08% annually with a birthrate of 16.6 live births per 1,000 inhabitants and a mortality rate of 7.1 deaths per 1,000 inhabitants. Since 2010, the crude Net migration rate has ranged from five to six immigrants per 1,000 inhabitants per year.
Education in Adamantina is free and mandatory, ranging from ages five to seventeen, and consists of four levels. An initial level for children between the ages of one and give, with the last two years being compulsory; kindergarten (scuola dell'infanzia). Second level, mandatory for six to seven years; primary school (scuola primaria). Third level, mandatory for five to six years; upper secondary school (scuola secondaria di secondo grado). The fourth and final level of education in Adamantina is mandatory for three to four years; university (università) or vocational school (istituto professionale). In 2020 75.45% of citizens had completed upper secondary school, and 7.53% had completed studies at a university of vocational school. University is divided in teritary, university and post-graduate sub-levels. In 2022 there were three national universities, seventeen public university systems and fourteen private universities.
There are three military academies, which are utilized to train military officers for the armed forces; United Provinces Military Academy (UPMA), the United Provinces Naval Academy (UPNA) and United Provinces Air Academy (UPAA). The largest national university is the University of Adamantina located in Porto Pellegrini. The largest provincial university system is the University of San Loreto, with its main campus in Casamassella having the most students.
Compulsory education is based upon provincial standards, with varying degrees of attainment by province. The Federal District of Pellegrini has the highest rate of citizens who have an advanced degree, at 18%. San Loreto has the second highest with 17%. Argenta has the lowest percentage of citizens without a an advance degree, at 3.5%.
Adamantine cuisine is a cultural blending of various Euclean, Rahelian and indigenous Asterian cuisines. It draws heavily from the influence of Eturian, Auratian and Gaullican dishes, brought by the waves of immigration during the 19th and 20th centuries. Adamantine cuisine is marked by its reliance on protein, especially red meats. Adamantine dishes usually utilize an array of oils, fats and dairy products. Meats are typically grilled and barbacued, with steak and beef ribs being especially common. In Southern Adamantina, in its more mountainous regions, lamb and chivito (goat) are more commonly utilized in dishes. Popular ingredients include onions, corn, tomatoes, olives, couscous, potatoes, garlic, chili pepper and oregano.
Traditional Adamantine cuisine typically comes with a combination of corn, mashed potatoes, or some type of lightly sauced pasta. The signature dish of Porto Pellegrini, Tagliatella di Manzo, consists of strips of beef filet, mushroom, onion and béchamel sauce. Mushroom sauces are popular in the country, and are usually utilized alongside mashed potatoes. Across the country coffeehouses are a common sight, serving expressos and cappuccinos and the more regional coca tea.