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Canada
Flag
Motto: A Mari Usque Ad Mare  (Latin)
(English: "From Sea to Sea")
Anthem: "O Canada"

Projection of North America with Canada in green
Capital Ottawa
45°24′N 75°40′W
Largest city Toronto
Official languages
Ethnic groups
Religion
Demonym(s) Canadian
Government Federal parliamentary
constitutional monarchy
• 
Elizabeth II
Julie Payette
Justin Trudeau
Legislature Parliament
Senate
House of Commons
Independence 
July 1, 1867
December 11, 1931
April 17, 1982
Area
• Total area
11,721,754 km2 (4,525,795 sq mi) (2nd)
• Water (%)
8.92
• Total land area
11,726,354 km2 (4,527,571 sq mi)
Population
• 2017 census
37,274,896 (38th)
• Density
3.92/km2 (10.2/sq mi) (228th)
GDP (PPP) 2018 estimate
• Total
$1.847 trillion (15th)
• Per capita
$49,775 (20th)
GDP (nominal) 2018 estimate
• Total
$1.798 trillion (10th)
• Per capita
$48,466 (15th)
Gini (2012) 31.6
medium
HDI (2015) Increase 0.920
very high · 10th
Currency Canadian dollar ($) (CAD)
Time zone UTC−3.5 to −8
• Summer (DST)
UTC−2.5 to −7
Date format yyyy-mm-dd (AD)
Driving side right
Calling code +1
ISO 3166 code CA
Internet TLD .ca

Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and four territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, Canada covers 11.7 million square kilometers, which makes it the second largest country in the world, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra. Consequently, its population is highly urbanized, with 82 percent of the 37.27 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Its capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. Canada's climate varies widely across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons.

Government and politics[edit]

Canada has a parliamentary system within the context of a constitutional monarchy, the monarchy of Canada being the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches.

Law[edit]

The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law of the country.

Foreign relations and military[edit]

Canada is recognized as a middle power for its role in international affairs with a tendency to pursue multilateral solutions. Canada's foreign policy based on international peacekeeping and security is carried out through coalitions and international organizations, and through the work of numerous federal institutions.Canada's peacekeeping role during the 20th century has played a major role in its global image. The strategy of the Canadian government's foreign aid policy reflects an emphasis to meet the Millennium Development Goals, while also providing assistance in response to foreign humanitarian crises.

The nation employs a professional, volunteer military force of approximately 247,157 active personnel and 56,100 reserve personnel. The unified Canadian Forces (CF) comprise the Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Navy, and Royal Canadian Air Force. In 2013, Canada's military expenditure totaled approximately C$19 billion, or around 1% of the country's GDP. Following the 2016 Defence Policy Review, the Canadian government announced a 70% increase to the country's defence budget over the next decade. The Canadian Forces will acquire 88 fighter planes and 15 naval surface combatants, the latter as part of the National Shipbuilding Procurement Strategy. Canada's total military expenditure is expected to reach C$32.7 billion by 2027.

Provinces and territories[edit]

Canada is a federation composed of ten provinces and four territories. In turn, these may be grouped into four main regions: Western Canada, Central Canada, Atlantic Canada, and Northern Canada (Eastern Canada refers to Central Canada and Atlantic Canada together). Provinces have more autonomy than territories, having responsibility for social programs such as health care, education, and welfare. Together, the provinces collect more revenue than the federal government, an almost unique structure among federations in the world. Using its spending powers, the federal government can initiate national policies in provincial areas, such as the Canada Health Act; the provinces can opt out of these, but rarely do so in practice. Equalization payments are made by the federal government to ensure that reasonably uniform standards of services and taxation are kept between the richer and poorer provinces.