Vjotercalic conjugation

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Vjotercalic conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a Vjotercalic verb from its principal parts by inflection. Vjotercalic verbs are conventionally divided into three conjugations with the following grouping:

  • 1st group: verbs ending in -to.
  • 2nd group: verbs ending in -ira, with the gerund ending in -issant
  • 3rd group: verbs ending in -et (with the exception of irregular verbs).
    • 1st section: verbs ending in -er, with the gerund ending in -ant
    • 2nd section: verbs ending in -met.
    • 3rd section: verbs ending in -et
    • in.

The first two groups follow a regular conjugation, whereas the third group follows an irregular one. The third group is considered a closed-class conjugation form, meaning that most new verbs introduced to the Vjotercalic language are of the first group (téléviser, atomiser, radiographier), with the remaining ones being of the second group (alunir).

Moods and tenses[edit | edit source]

There are seven different moods in Vjotercalic conjugation: indicative, subjunctive, conditional, imperative, infinitive, participle, and gerund. The infinitive and participle are not verbal moods.

Tenses are described under the mood to which they belong, and they are grouped as follows. Other tenses are constructed through the use of an auxiliary verb:

  • Indicative
  • Subjunctive
    • Present
    • Past: formed with an auxiliary verb in the subjunctive present
    • Imperfect
    • Pluperfect: formed with an auxiliary verb in the subjunctive imperfect
  • Imperative
    • Present
    • Past: formed with an auxiliary verb in the present imperative
  • Conditional
    • Present
    • Past (form 1): formed with an auxiliary verb in the present conditional
    • Past (form 2): formed with an auxiliary verb in the imperfect subjunctive
  • Infinitive
    • Present
    • Past: formed with an auxiliary verb in the present infinitive
  • Participle
    • Present
    • Past
  • Gerund: (constructed by preceding the present participle with the preposition en)

Auxiliary verbs[edit | edit source]

There are two auxiliary verbs in Vjotercalic: in (to be) and ky (to not (do)). in is used to conjugate compound tenses verbs according to these rules:

In "to be" with ky negative verb
Indicative Subjunctive Conditional Imperative
Present tense Simple past tense Imperfect tense Future tense Present tense Imperfect tense Present tense Present tense
Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative
moca inen /inɛn/ kin in /kɪn in/ yjinen /ɑɪjinɛn/ kin yjin /kɪn ɑɪjin/ enedjin /ɛnɛdʲɪn/ kin ened /kɪn ɛnɛt/ hern /xɛrn/ kin hyn /kɪn xɑɪn/ klenin /klɛnɪn/ kin klët /kɪn klɛːt/ klejin /klɛjɪn/ kin kly /kɪn klɑɪ/ memis /mɛmɪs/ kin /kɪn
soca ins /ins/ kist in /kɪst in/ yjimsen /ɑɪjiɱsɛn/ kist yjin /kɪst ɑɪjin/ enedjis /ɛnɛdʲɪs/ kist ened /kɪst ɛnɛt/ holn /xɑɫn/ kist hyn /kɪst xɑɪn/ klësin /klɛːsɪn/ kist klët /kɪst klɛːt/ klenin /klɛnɪn/ kist kly /kɪst klɑɪ/ mumis /mʊmɪs/ kist /kɪst kist /kɪst
Ta Inta /ɪntə/ kujal In /kʊjəl in/ Ynta /ɑɪntə/ kujal Yjin /kʊjəl ɑɪjin/ Enedjijina /ɛnɛdʲɪjinə/ kujal ened /kʊjəl ɛnɛt/ Tahen /təxɛn/ kujal Hyn /kɑɪi xɑɪn/ Klëtin /klɛːtɪn/ kujal klët /kʊjəl klɛːt/ Kletin /klɛtɪn/ kujal kly /kʊjəl klɑɪ/ Nentis /nɛntɪs/ kujal /kʊjəl kujal /kʊjəl
hyl innĝo ky in /kɑɪ in/ yjil /ɑɪjil/ ky yjin /kɑɪ ɑɪjin/ enedjinnun /ɛnɛdʲɪŋʊn/ ky ened /kɑɪ ɛnɛt/ hyln /xɑɪɫn/ ky hyn /kɑɪ xɑɪn/ klehan /klɛxən/ ky klët /kɑɪ klɛːt/ kleha /klɛxə/ ky kly /kɑɪ klɑɪ/ komis /kɑmɪs/ ky /kɑɪ
sa infa /infə/ kinen in /kɪnɛn in/ ysca /ɑɪʃə/ kinen yjin /kɪnɛn ɑɪjin/ enedjinta /ɛnɛdɪntə/ kinen ened kɪnɛn ɛnɛt/ scen /ʃɛnn/ kinen hyn /kɪnɛn xɑɪn/ klecajin /klɛçəjɪn/ kinen klët /kɪnɛn klɛːt/ klesca /klɛʃə/ kinen kly /kɪnɛn klɑɪ/ memas /mɛməs/ kinen /kɪnɛn kinen /kɪnɛn
ta int /int/ kisten in /kɪstɛn in/ yjočonta /ɑɪjɑt͡ʃɑntə/ kisten yjin /kɪstɛn ɑɪjin/ enedint /ɛnɛdɪnt/ kisten ened /kɪstɛn ɛnɛt/ ičan /ɪt͡ʃən/ kisten hyn /kɪstɛn xɑɪn/ kledajin /klɛdəjɪn/ kisten klët /kɪstɛn klɛːt/ kleda /klɛtə/ kisten kly /kɪstɛn klɑɪ/ mënis /mɛːnɪs/ kisten /kɪstɛn kisten /kɪstɛn
re inīr /iniːr/ kÿt in /kɑɪːt in/ yjir /ɑɪjir/ kÿt yjin /kɑɪːt ɑɪjin/ enediner /ɛnɛdʲɪnr̩/ kÿt ened /kɑɪːt ɛnɛt/ ĝen /ɣɛn/ kÿt hyn /kɑɪːt xɑɪn/ klelajin /klɛləjɪn/ kÿt klët /kɑɪːt klɛːt/ klel /klɛl/ kÿt kly /kɑɪːt klɑɪ/ jīrir /jiːʀir/ kÿt /kɑɪːt

* Notice that the imperative negative verb uses the same form as the present subjunctive.

Non-finite forms:

  • Infinitive: (ky) in /kɑɪ in/
  • Present participle: (ki) inits /ki inits/
  • Verbal adjective: (kojä) fin /kɑjəː fin/
  • Past participle: (kos) ijent /kɑs ijɛnt/

First group verbs (-to verbs)[edit | edit source]

Vjotercalic verbs ending in -to, which constitute the largest class, inflect somewhat differently from other verbs. Between the stem and the inflectional endings that are common across most verbs, there may be a vowel, which in the case of the -er verbs is a silent -e- (in the simple present singular), or -ai /e/ (in the past participle and the je form of the simple past), and -a- /a/ (in the rest of simple past singular and in the past subjunctive). In addition, the orthographic -t found in the -ir and -re verbs in the singular of the simple present and past is not found in this conjugation, so that the final consonants are , -s, rather than -s, -s, -t.

Velnato[edit | edit source]

The verb velnato "to speak", in Vjotercalic orthography and IPA transcription
Indicative Subjunctive Conditional Imperative
Present tense Simple past tense Imperfect tense Future tense Present tense Imperfect tense Present tense Present tense
Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative
moca velnaja /vɛɫnəjə/ ky velnaja /kɑɪ vɛɫnəjə/ velnamot /vɛɫnəmɑt/ ky velnamot /kɑɪ vɛɫnəmɑt/ velnacuja /vɜɫnəçʊjə/ ky velnacuja /kɑɪ vɜɫnəçʊjə/ velnannhok /vɛɫnəŋxɑk/ kÿ velnannhok /kɑɪː vɛɫnəŋxɑk/ klavelna /kləvɛɫnə/ ra klavelna /lə kləvɛɫnə/ koltavelnaca /kɑɫtəvɛɫnəçə/ ra koltavelnaca /ʀə kɑɫtəvɛɫnəçə/ myvelnan /mɑɪvɛɫnən/ ji myvelnan /ji mɑɪvɛɫnən/
soca velnaje /vɛɫnəjɛ/ ky velnaje /kɑɪ vɛɫnəjɛ/ velnanot /vɛɫnənɑt/ ky velnanot /kɑɪ vɛɫnənɑt/ ky velnaceja /kɑɪ vɜɫnəçɛjə/ velnacok /vɛɫnəçɑk/ kï velnacok /kɑɪi vɛɫnəçɑk/ klavelnas /kləvɛɫnəs/ ra klavelnas /lə kləvɛɫnəs/ ro koltavelnaca /ʀɑ kɑɫtəvɛɫnəçə/ myvelnaca /mɑɪvɛɫnəçə/ ji myvelnaca /ji mɑɪvɛɫnəçə/ yvelnajo /ɑɪvɛɫnəjɑ/ ti yvelnajo /ti ɑɪvɛɫnəjɑ/
Ta Velnata /vɛlnətə/ ky Velnata /kɑɪ vɛlnətə/ Velnatot /vɛlnətɑt/ ky Velnatat /kɑɪ vɛlnətət/ Velnafuja /vɜlnəfʊjə/ ky Velnafuja /kɑɪ vɜlnəfʊjə/ Velnakak /vɛlnəkək/ kï Velnakak /kɑɪi vɛlnəkək/ Klevelnatä /klɛvɛlnətəː/ ra Klevelnatä /lə klɛvɛlnətəː/ Koltavelnasa /kɑɫtəvɛɫnəsə/ ra Koltavelnasa /ʀə kɑɫtəvɛɫnəsə/ Myvelnasca /mɑɪvɛɫnəʃə/ ji Myvelnasca /ji mɑɪvɛɫnəʃə/ Yvelnata /ɑɪvɛɫnətə/ ti Yvelnata /ti ɑɪvɛɫnətə/
hyl velnaka /vɛɫnəkə ky velnaka /kɑɪ vɛɫnəkə velnannot /vɛɫnəŋɑt/ gy velnannot /gɑɪ vɛɫnəŋɑt/ velnahuja /vɜɫnəxʊjə/ velnahuja /kɑɪ vɜɫnəxʊjə/ velnahök /vɛɫnəxɑːk/ kï velnahök /kɑɪi vɛɫnəxɑːk/ klavelnaha /kləvɛɫnəxə/ ra klavelnaha /lə kləvɛɫnəxə/ koltavelnaĝa /kɑɫtəvɛɫnəɣə/ ra koltavelnaĝa /ʀə kɑɫtəvɛɫnəɣə/ myvelnak /mɑɪvɛɫnək/ jī myvelnak /jiː mɑɪvɛɫnək/
sa velnaja /vɛɫnəjə/ ky velnaja /kɑɪ vɛɫnəjə/ velnavot /vɛɫnəvɑt/ ky velnascat /kɑɪ vɛɫnəvɑt/ velnasuja /vɜɫnəsʊjə/ ky velnasuja /kɑɪ vɜɫnəsʊjə/ velnaĝok /vɛɫnəɣɑk/ kÿ velnaĝok /kɑɪː vɛɫnəɣɑk/ klavelna /kləvɛɫnə/ la klavelna /lə kləvɛɫnə/ koltavelnasa /kɑɫtəvɛɫnəsə/ la koltavelnasa /lə kɑɫtəvɛɫnəsə/ myvelnant /mɑɪvɛɫnənt/ jī myvelnant /jiː mɑɪvɛɫnənt/ yvelnaja /ɑɪvɛɫnəjə/ ti yvelnaja /ti ɑɪvɛɫnəjə/
ta velnata /vɛɫnətə/ ku velnata /kʊ vɛɫnətə/ velnatont /vɛɫnətɑnt/ ky velnatont /kɑɪ vɛɫnətɑnt/ ko velnasyja /kɑ vɛɫnəsɑɪjə velnakok /vɛɫnəkɑk/ kï velnakok /kɑɪi vɛɫnəkɑk/ klavelnat /kləvɛɫnət/ la klavelnat /lə kləvɛɫnət/ la koltavelnafa /lə kɑɫtəvɛɫnəfə/ myvelnacat /mɑɪvɛɫnəçət/ jī myvelnacat /jiː mɑɪvɛɫnəçət/ yvelnata /ɑɪvɛɫnətə/ ti yvelnata /ti ɑɪvɛɫnətə/
re velnajora /vɛɫnəjɑʀə/ ky velnara /kɑɪ vɛɫnəʀə/ velnalunt /vɛɫnəlʊnt/ ky velnalunt /kɑɪ vɛɫnəlʊnt/ velnaruja /vɛɫnərʊjə/ ky velnaruja /kɑɪ vɛɫnərʊjə/ velnaronnk /vɛɫnəʀɑŋk/ kï velnaronnk /kɑɪi vɛɫnəʀɑŋk/ klavelnali /kləvɛɫnəɫi/ la klavelnali /lə kləvɛɫnəɫi/ koltavelnara /kɑɫtəvɛɫnəʀə/ la koltavelnara /lə kɑɫtəvɛɫnəʀə/ myvelnajor /mɑɪvɛɫnəjɑʀ/ jī myvelnajor /jiː mɑɪvɛɫnəjɑʀ/

Non-finite forms:

  • Infinitive: (ky) velnato /kɑɪ vɛɫnətɑ/
  • Present participle: (ki) velnačus /ki vɛɫnət͡ʃʊs/
  • Verbal adjective: (kojä) velnatuf /kɑjəː vɛɫnətʊf/
  • Past participle: (kos) velnamnuje /kɑs vɛɫnəmnʊjɛ/

Second group verbs (-ira verbs)[edit | edit source]

Sytira[edit | edit source]

The verb sytira "to finish", in Vjotercalic orthography and IPA transcription
Indicative Subjunctive Conditional Imperative
Present tense Simple past tense Imperfect tense Future tense Present tense Imperfect tense Present tense Present tense
Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative
moca sytorma /sɑɪtɑrmə/ ky sytorma /kɑɪ sɑɪtɑrmə/ sytort sytijil /sɑɪtijɪl/ sytīs glosytol /gɫɑsɑɪtɑl/ glosytas
soca sytosa /sɑɪtɑsə/ ky sytosa /kɑɪ sɑɪtɑsə/ sytusa
Ta Sytä /sɑɪtəː/ ky Sytä /kɑɪ sɑɪtəː/ Sytä Sytijida /sɑɪtijidə/ Sytīda Glosytots /gɫɑsɑɪtɑst/ Glosytajis
hyl sytosci /sɑɪtɑʃi/ ky sytosci /kɑɪ sɑɪtɑʃi/ sytoscit /sɑɪtɑʃɪt/ sytiji /sɑɪtiji/ sytī glosytot /gɫɑsɑɪtɑt/ glosytaji
sa syton /sɑɪtɑn/ ki syton /ki sɑɪtɑn/ sytsant sytijil /sɑɪtijɪl/ sytīs glosytol /gɫɑsɑɪtɑl/ glosytas
ta sytota /sɑɪtɑtə/ ki sytota /ki sɑɪtɑtə/ sytäta sytiji /sɑɪtiji/ sytī glosytot /gɫɑsɑɪtɑt/ glosytaji
re sytara /sɑɪtərə/ ki sytara /ki sɑɪtərə/ sytolla sytiji /sɑɪtijɪ/ sytīsa glosytor /gɫɑsɑɪtɑʀ/ glosyta

See also[edit | edit source]