|Vorma Class Aircraft Carrier|
Vorma Class Aircraft Carrier
|Builder:||Newport News Shipbuilding|
Upgraded and retrofitted by Odense Staalskibsværft
|Ordered:||First of class: March 1997|
|Commissioned:||First of class Mk2: September 1999|
|Propulsion:||NAtech/Westinghouse COFCAG (multi-gas turbine and fuel cell propulsion system) with two pods|
|Maximum speed:||39 knots|
|Range:||19,000 nautical miles at 33 knots|
|Complement:||Ships company 3,000|
Air wing: 1,940
1 x Saab 9LV CMS Combat Management System
1 x TERMA ATM Air Traffic Management
1 x Saab 9lv FCS Fire Control System
2 x Saab EOS 500 Weapons Control Radar
2 x TERMA SCANTER 6000 Surveillance Radar
1 x Saab Hull Inspector Sensor
1 x Saab DD90 Diver Detection System
1 x Saab SME-200 Tactical EMS / ELINT
1 x Saab NLWS Naval Laser Warning System
2 x TERMA DL-12T decoy launcher
2 x TERMA Loki torpedo countermeasure
2 x ESSM launchers
2 x RIM-116 RAM
3 x Phalanx_CIWS
2010 Typical Aircraft wing:
40 x F/A 18 Super Hornet
2 x C-2 Greyhound
2 x Saab 2000 AEW&C
2 x Sea King HAR4 Search and Rescue
6 x AS532 Cougar ASUW / ASW
FLOSK decided in 2012 to launch the "Future Aircraft Carrier" program to define what should be the Sjøforsvaret's requirements to maintain its blue water capabilities beyond 2020, for which it assembled a committee of experts who had to submit a report within a year. . The report recommended not prolonging the operational life of the Vorma class aircraft carriers due to its high operating costs and the complexity of keeping up to date ships designed in the 60s . In 2019 only KKS Frigg remains fully operational, keeping KKS Freyja in a state of " operational reserve ". It is planned that the first of the Muspelheim Class aircraft carriers will be delivered to the Sjøforsvaret during the summer of 2019 for sea trials while the second one will be delivered before the end of 2020, so the Vorma class aircraft carriers will be removed from service in 2022.
Background[edit | edit source]
As part of the strategy to achieve a truly blue water navy, started with the purchase of the Spruance destroyers for further modification, KUFLO negotiated with several North American nations the possibility of acquiring any of its conventional carriers.
The opportunity would come in February 1997 when the government of Skandinavia raised the possibility of acquiring the aircraft carriers Kitty Hawk and Constellation that would be decommissioned by the government of Sierra.
Upgrading design[edit | edit source]
Once the purchase agreement was signed, technicians began working on the design of the new ship that was awarded to Odense Staalskibsværft. One carrier will be activated inmediately and the other one would suffer a series of modifications during the next two years. Once the upgraded unit would enter service, the first one should be upgraded.
The guidelines were as follows:
- Reforming and strengthening of the hull
- Changes in the flight deck to accommodate the new aircraft and new automated systems
- Installing a new power plant more modern and efficient, adapted to the new requirements of power
- A completely new installation of all the ship's electronic systems
- Upgrading weapons systems
Hull[edit | edit source]
New hull modifications include a new propeller design, a new bulbous bow design that provides more buoyancy to the forward end of the ship and improves hull efficiency, curved flight deck edges to reduce radar signature, a new underwater hull-coating system, deck covering modernized to reduce ship weight by 100 tons, low Solar Absorptive and Anti-Stain Paint, and a redesigned hangar bay that has less clutter.
Flight deck[edit | edit source]
Changes to the flight deck are the most visible of the differences between the Kitty Hawk and Vorma classes. Several sections have been altered from the layout of the Kitty Hawk class flight deck to improve aircraft handling, storage, and flow. Vorma Class have no catapult-specific restrictions on launching aircraft, but still retains 4 catapults, 2 bow and 2 waist and the number of aircraft lifts from hangar deck to flight deck level is reduced from 4 to 3. The design changes to the flight deck are instrumental in the maximization of sortie generation.
The route of weapons to the aircraft stops on the flight deck has been replanned to accommodate higher re-arming rates, and in turn higher potential sortie rates.
Another major change is the creation of a deck space for a centralized re-arming and re-fueling location. This reduces the number of times that an aircraft will have to be moved after landing before it can be launched again. Fewer aircraft movements require, in turn, fewer deck hands to accomplish them, reducing the size of the ship's crew. On Vorma-class carriers the time that it takes to launch a plane after it has landed is defined by the time necessary to re-arm and re-fuel. To minimize this time, ordnance will be moved by robotic devices from storage areas to the centralized re-arming location via re-located weapons elevators. The new path that ordnance follows does not cross any areas of aircraft movement, thereby reducing traffic problems in the hangars and on the flight deck. The launching system has been completly redefined and the old steam catapults habe been replaced by Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System (EMALS) developed by General Atomics for the Everetty Gerald R. Ford-class aircraftcarriers. This system allows to launch aircraft from carriers using a linear motor drive instead of steam pistons used in conventional aircraft catapults. This technology reduces stress on airframes because they can be accelerated more gradually to takeoff speed than steam-powered catapults. EMALS also uses less fresh water, reducing the need for energy-intensive desalination.
Power generation & propulsion[edit | edit source]
The power plant of the ship has been completely redesigned to suit the needs and requirements of the Sjøforsvaret and the new systems and elements of the ship. FLOSK chose to equip the ship with a mixed multi-gas turbine and fuel cell propulsion system (COFCAG) using the existing Westinghouse gas turbine and adding a suit of NAtech fuel cells able to use natural gas. At low speed and during maneuvers the system uses the power delivered by the fuel cells, using the gas turbine system to achieve higher speeds. In addition, the system reuses the exhaust gases to supercharge the turbine and for the ship's heating systems, which considerably reduces the ship's thermal footprint. Power plant of the ship was designed taking into account the current needs of energy for propulsion and other systems on board, so it was possible to assume an increase in power required if new equipment or systems were installed in the future.
Electronic systems[edit | edit source]
- 1 x Saab 9LV CMS Combat Management System
- 1 x TERMA ATM Air Traffic Management
- 1 x Saab 9lv FCS Fire Control System
- 2 x Saab EOS 500 Weapons Control Radar
- 2 x TERMA SCANTER 6000 Surveillance Radar
- 1 x Saab Hull Inspector Sensor
- 1 x Saab DD90 Diver Detection System
Armament[edit | edit source]
Air wing[edit | edit source]
The ships are able to carry more than 70 aircrafts. The 2010 Typical Aircraft wing is formed by:
- 40 x F/A 18 Super Hornet
- 2 x C-2 Greyhound
- 2 x Saab 2000 AEW&C
- 2 x Sea King HAR4 Search and Rescue
- 6 x AS532 Cougar ASUW / ASW
- 12 UAVs
List of ships[edit | edit source]
The ships are named after old norse goddesses Frigg and Freyja.
|C-11||KSS Frigg||March 1997||November 1997||March 2002 (Upgraded)|
|C-12||KSS Freyja||March 1997||January 1998||October 1999 (Upgraded)|