Yusur Civilization (Origo Mundi)
|Geographical range||Western Senura, Uphra Delta, Central Sea|
|Period||Late Neolithic, Bronze Age|
|Dates||c. -1,000 to 1,500|
|Preceded by||Jerjica Period|
The Yusur Civilization was an ancient society that developed around the Uphra Delta. The civilization is estimated by historians to have originated some 4,000 years ago (Year -1,000 OM), when the first permanent, year-round urban centers originated through the invention of agricultural practices in the region. Seated at the crossroads of neighboring cultures, the early settlements of the Yusur Civilization became the envy of the neighboring world, with clashes against migrating groups and against each other marking the first significant events in the civilization's recorded history.
Historians roughly divide the region's histories into the following periods:
- Jerjica Period: -3,000 to -1,000 (Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age I)
- Deltan Period: -1,000 to 1 (Bronze Age II-IV)
- Early Dynastic Period (Bronze Age IV)
- Early Dynastic I: 1 to 100 (Enkislamara, Edonite Muri)
- Early Dynastic II: 100 to 300 (Usucach Hegemony, Barcurite Iconda, Nunemites)
- Early Dynastic III: 300 to 550 (Mizqa Hegemony, Akinite Agaesh, Rimush Hegemony)
- Early Dynastic IV: 550 - 600 (Ukes-Usucach Hegemony, Ingishkames)
- Gàłsic Period
- Early Baesralite History
- Hesushimladuin Empire: 750 to 800 (Lóphemągilud, Usqema Exile, Warring Obeneshocul Period)
According to the consensus of most historians, he Yusur people are believed to be derived from an eastern people, who migrated to the continent westward. The first settlers of the continent Senura (a named derived from the transcontinental, mythological heroine figure present across the continent; called Sijur in the Yusur language) are believed to have arrived some 40,000 years ago, primarily from the east and north, however, there is an alternate theory that settlers from southwest Letsia may have reached the continent around the same time or soon after, leading to minor influence over southern Senura early culture. However, archaeological evidence seems to indicate this initial wave was overtaken by a second group that arrived some 10,000 years later, with stronger ties to the Najim subcontinent.
First proposed in 2810 by Usqemologist Jola Góbin, these people would have spoken Proto-Najo-Senuran, that links the Yusur with most of the people of the continent. Notable exceptions exist to the notion that the earlier culture present in the region was completely replaced, as the Millan culture in the central mountains of the continent is known to have spoken a non-Najo-Senuran agglutinative language isolate, which lacked many of the characteristics of its neighbors. However, an alternative theory was proposed by Lasquedy et al. in 2902, which linked the Yusur to the seafaring pan-Chrystalian Sea civilization, which seemed to have colonized the entire basin, from ancient Telachitul to the Proto-Qerans to the Javuk Peninsula, some time from -2,000 to -1,000 OM. According to Jures Larguri, the Yusur may have also been descended from a western coast people that relied on hunting and fishing, inhabiting the region that is now the Friorian Bay prior to the end of the Ice Age.
What would become the Yusur region is categorized as split between the Proto-Uphrites, the Savie Culture, and the Proto-Denjites, from approximately -2,500 to -1,000 OM. The latter is thought to have eventually developed into the ancient nation of Melia, while the Savie and Uphrites, although never directly mentioned by the Yusur, likely formed the foundation of their later civilization. It was during this prelude to the Yusur that the region likely first was introduced to industries such as weaving, metalworking, masonry, and pottery, and steps were taken to drain the marshes of the region for agriculture. This time period as a whole is sometimes called the Jerjica Period, after the settlement Jerjica. Discovered in 2790, the settlement is the oldest known proto-Yusurian city in the region, and the only definitively historical site to have existed before them to be later referenced in Yusur writings.
Early City States
The first recorded Yusur cities are believed to have originated around -1,000 OM, and were concentrated along the lower Uphra Delta. The earliest cities would have likely numbered less than a few thousand people, with stone walls, mudbrick temple complexes, and a concentration of farmland around each respective settlement. It is believed that each principal city of the region developed their own principal deity, with the monarch of each city serving as a high priest in matters of religion, or in some cases assisted by a council of elders. It is estimated that during this early period the Yusur civilization also developed a writing system, using clay tablets to carve stories and messages.
According to one of the most important archaeological discoveries dated to this period, the Yusur King List, the Yusur traced the lineage of their priest-kings over the course of thousands of years. The tablet implies that during various periods of time one city might assert loose influence over the others, but no city retained overall direct control over the entire region at any point during this period. The tablet also delineates the current world from a prehistoric, mystic world, which reportedly ended with a cataclysmic natural disaster. This event would form an important part of Yusur records and religion, with the current date being post-disaster, and the heroes of legend and myth primarily being of the old world. Several versions of the list would also be uncovered in various ancient sites, with the lineage of later kings seemingly altered to fit that particular city’s claim to divinity or hegemony.
The first verifiably historic rulers of the King List would be the First Dynasty of Uruccala, who is said to have dominated the delta at the start of the 9th Dumuc (9,000 years in the Yusur calendar). The first king of the dynasty, Enkislamara, is said to have been the first monarch of any state to succeed the great disaster, and united the city of Uruccala. His reign is also referenced by an inscription discovered which confirms several details of his reign. Notably, it is said that he directed the Yusur in conquering the city of Edon, and that he build the Temple of Uleis in the city of Nucar. The Edonites are believed to have been a rival culture that had migrated into the Uphra Delta region from the far east, settling along the banks of Lake Gidis and the northern river of Muri. After the death of Enkislamara the Edonites would quickly reestablish independence from any Yusur city, while one of their colonies, Tesh, would come to dominate the Muri under the warlord Amhbific. It is believed that Amhbific’s dynasty would conquer both Uruccala, located on the eastern edge of the Uphra Delta, and the city of Lescu, located near the mouth of the Muri.
The primary cities of the Yusur came under the influence of the city of Usucach, led by a leader named Mesur-nanesh, who ruled roughly 100 years after the death of Enkislamara. He would be the first ruler to declare himself “Lord of Yusur”, having subjugated most of the cities of the delta over the course of years of campaigning. One of his contemporaries, Jusheraba, came to rule the city of Barcur, on the western edge of the delta, and successfully resisted Usucach in numerous wars, profiting off the control of the river Iconda. After his death the Nunemites would come to dominate the fertile plain between the two rivers further downstream, and would successfully dismantle the empire of both kings after their deaths.
The Nunemites settled the city of Umgupal, at the center of the river, while the mouth of the Iconda split between the two cities of Barcur and Tunud. Despite being adjacent on opposite side’s of the river’s mouth, neither city managed to subjugate the other, with Barcur instead focusing east, while Tunud focused west. The rest of the river was ruled by the Nunemites, who periodically raided north into the delta and subjugated several cities. Archaeological evidence dates the First Dynasty of Uruccala to approximately Year 1, the empires of Mesur-nanesh and Jusheraba to the early Second Century, and the Three Cities of the Iconda up to the end of the Third Century.
After which, the Yusur were again united, this time by Eanuhshib and the Third Dynasty of Mizqa. Under his leadership the Yusur people pushed the Edonites north from the outskirts of the delta, raiding north of the Muri River to the Temtu River. In the west the Kings of Mizqa ended the independence of Barcur, and helped pave the way for the collapse of the First Dynasty of Umgupal. Around the same time a people known as the Akinites migrated to the River Agaesh in the west. Considered completely barbaric in nature, the Yusur constructed a long wall between the Iconda and the Agaesh, but the Akinites managed to circle around the wall and conquer cities such as Tunud.
After numerous wars with Mizqa, the Akinites settled their capital at Esin on the River Agaesh. The weakened Mizqa rulers are said to have been toppled by a peasant turned king named Narama, who conquered the Yusur cities from his capital of Rimush. Narama and his descendants are estimated to have ruled during the end of the Fifth Century and during most of the Sixth Century, before the empire collapsed under the pressure of increasing attacks from the Akinites and other migrating peoples. The cities of the Agaesh would successfully sack Narama’s capital of Rimush, whose ruins remain unknown to this day. In its place the Third Dynasty of Ukes dominated the delta, ruling over a loose network of cities not unlike the state of affairs centuries prior.
Ukes was toppled by the Third Dynasty of Usucach several decades later, and soon after by the brief Second Dynasty of Eshuun. In Year 661 the city of Eshuun came to be ruled by Ingishkames, who became remembered for many important innovations. By the end of his rule the Yusur operated a system of mail delivery, with the king promoting the use of a sole, Yusurian script and language for communication. His reign would also see exploration and settlement further south along the Uphra River. This is evidenced by several stone pillars discovered hundreds of miles down river, which told of Ingishkames’ rule over the land and his many accomplishments.
During the final years of Ingishkames’ reign in Eshuun a strong king named Urscnahish emerged in Mizqa that challenged the supremacy of Ingishkames. Little is known about Urscnahish’s reign, which leads some to speculate that his attempted takeover was likely unsuccessful, but one important discovery from this time would be the Code of Urscnahish, which would become the earliest known code of law among the Yusur yet discovered by archaeologists. These laws began with a series of societal distinctions; at the top of every city was the “great man”, who served as a high priest and monarch. It is believed that Urscnahish’s laws paint a snapshot of a certain trend that had been developing in Yusur culture for sometime.
Evidence points to every early city during Urscnahish's day being based around a temple, known as an Acuzimut, which had developed into giant, stone structures and the centerpiece of every city. For their ability to speak directly to the gods, which would be a much needed skill for the vulnerable Yusur people, in a religion that believed in the temperament and destructive power of a multitude of gods, the high priests of the Acuzimut were considered the highest caste of society, and the sole power in any city. However, during the upheaval of the region’s politics during the great disaster, and the ensuing wars to unify the region, there appears to have been a shift toward a non-religious entity, which can be described as a “great man” or king.
Likely all secular government officials were derived from the military, and through their conquests they would develop the first palaces that rivaled the Acuzimut. By the time of Urscnahish many cities had developed a priest-king role for its highest official. This role wed the two offices together, sometimes quite literally through the wedding of a high priestess to a king. Urscnahish specifically calls himself the high priest of Ru and the King of Mizqa. Later developments seem to indicate that during the conquests of migrating peoples among the Yusur, such as the Akinites, this distinction finally officially splintered, as for the first time a foreign king was ruling over one or more distinct religious groups, and began an attempt toward hereditary monarchy that was less entwined with religion.
Regardless, the Code of Urscnahish next stipulates the existence of two classes; freedmen and slaves. A complex system had developed, where freed farmers keep their own private property, but were required to pay a percentage of their crops to the central government. Crops grown by slaves, who would not need to be paid, were to be equally split between the landowner and his city’s public supply, which non-farmers would take from freely in exchange for their non-agricultural enterprises.
Possibly weakened during the process of subduing said Urscnahish, the king Ingishkames would be killed soon after when a group known as the Basimites invaded the Upper Uphra River. They are said to have divided the Yusur domain in half, while also expanding west from the river toward the southern borders of the Nunemite cities, located near Mount Siunuma.
Archaeological evidence from this period also notes a heavy shift in the linguistics of the Yusur people, with extensive borrowing occurring between the Yusur, Akinites, and others, leading to historians to propose the idea that most cities were probably bilingual, and there existed a sprachbund in the region. Interestingly, a later copy of the Code of Urscnahish, dated only a few generations later, is written entirely in the Akinite language, despite being discovered in the far north.
According to the Gàłsughęmas, a collection of texts written around around this pertaining to the Yusur religion primarily, the Second Dynasty of Eshuun was toppled by an invasion from the south, which saw Eshuun and Mizqa both razed. The descendants of Urscnahish were taken prisoner to a land known as Ulə̀m, and the Yusur kingdoms fell to a series of Akinites from the west. Historians believe that the Akinite migration into the river delta was probably a long process over generations, with the Akinites only beginning to reach a powerful position by the time of the Gàłsughęmas. The land of Ulə̀m is typically identified as the region 300 miles south of Uphra, where the people would have been ethnically similar to the Akinites.
The new arrivals would have adopted many Yusur customs, while introducing their language into the population. The Akinites have been linked to cultures from across the continent, owing to the similarities in language and religion as much as 2,000 miles away. One of their chief deities would have been the earth being Idọti, who is linked to the proto-continental deity known as Eidọthim, from which the deity Itanim, worshiped on the other side of the continent, and the deity Esomid in the south, are also derived. From the Ja-Gàłsughęm, the first of the four Gàłsic texts, these non-Yusur influences are most clear, where as in the latest text, the Usuma-Gàłsughęm, references are made to specific ritual practices known to have originated from the Yusur.
These religious texts give rise to the name “Gàłsic Period” , to describe their introduction into Yusur society. The earliest known Gàłsic king was an Akinite named Noįmeshúmes, who seemed to have had a hand in the sacking of Mizqa. His capital would become the city of Usqema, located upriver from Yusur settlement. The king would become famed for his defeat of the Umgupal Civilization, which seemingly saved the Yusur states elsewhere on the river from their constant harassment, owning Usqema respect from their neighbors. Around the same time a legendary confrontation would take place in the north which saw the fall of the Edonite city states.
The most powerful was the city of Tesh, which had dominated the Muri River sporadically over the centuries. But Tesh would be destroyed after a ten year war, pushing the Edonites far into the north and beyond. This would cause a chain reaction of migration, as well as an interest at sea for the Edonites. The Muri cities would the first to master long distance sailing, establish the outpost of Obeneshocul on the small island north of the Yusur. This long distance trade would lead to increased interest from further away tribes, for better or for worse for the Yusur nations.
During this time the Umpha Delta experienced a series of attacks by the sea, supposedly consisting of a mysterious confederation of seafaring people. According to an inscription discovered near the River Muri, the invaders were a confederation of “Geshle, Turuc, Monosh, Surha, and Beshbes”, although the exact origin of most of these peoples is unknown. The Surha are said to have been the first people of the later confederation to target the Umpha Delta, creating a growing navy for plunder and transport. The Yusur cities were completely unprepared for this initial attack by sea, but they were eventually defeated for the first time by the city of Lescu, who later incorporated these raiders into their army and as royal bodyguards.
Although it is unknown where the Surha originated, they have been closely linked with the island of Sahyrod, in part due to their linguistic similarity, but also due to ancient artifacts on the island often displaying horned helmets, and other distinctive pieces of clothing, which seem to appear in Yusur inscriptions about them. Additionally, if the Surha are associated with Sahyrod, it unknown if they later settled the island after their events in Yusur, or if they originated from there before attacking Yusur. It is known that the Turuc referred to the people north of the Temtu, who inhabited the peninsula in the far north. The Turuc had been a series of small kingdoms, which had sporadically been the vassals or targets of the River Muri cities.
The Beshbes have been theorized to be the same people as the city of Tesh, having been displaced from that city when it was sacked decades earlier, or as a group displaced or affected by Tesh’s fall in some way. The Monosh are generally accepted to be from the kingdoms of the large islands north of Yusur, which had limited contact with the south before this event. On the largest island, which the Yusur called Enuscerod, the kingdoms appear to have been in the early stages of an internal collapse, with an increased number of Enuscerodian pottery and other artifacts making its way to more distant parts of the region, such as Obeneshocul.
The Turuc frequently raided Obeneshocul before this period, and it is likely that the first alliance was formed between the Turuc and Monosh. The first organized effort by this coalition is known to have struck at the Uphra Delta, which caused havoc along the coast. They are said to have been defeated by Noįmeshúmes, and he used their invasion to solidify his control over the north. When a second invasion came nearly a decade later, this coalition likely settled west of the Yusur, either seizing land or being forced there by the Yusurians.
Early Baesralite History
After the disastrous invasions from the sea, which destroyed many cities of the Yusur, it is said that many of the invaders were settled in the region west of the delta, primarily west of the Agaesh River. Inscriptions uncovered from this time from this time would exhibit highly unique word order and vocabulary, while using pieces of Akinite and Yusur script, adding credence to the idea that a foreign powder intermingled with the native peoples of the region. It was during this time that the western settlers came into increased contact with the Baesralite people of the west, which the Yusur called Uanan, after the original inhabitants of the land before the Baesralite arrival.
Little is known about Uanan society, as their cities were largely destroyed some 800 years before this time, with the Baesralites settling in what remained of their society. Alternatively the Baesralites may have been descended from the Uananites as well, although their own history, written later, claims that they migrated into the lands and did battle with Uanan. It is likely that in either case the Baesralites adopted a large part of Uanan culture, as well as pieces from the Yusur, Akinites, and the people settled in the west, both before and after the invasions from the sea. According to one of the few Uanan inscriptions yet discovered, their religion primarily focused on the worship of Baashelan, the father of the gods and the creator, who is also believed to have been the equivalent of the Yusur deity Beshecel, who was popular in the west before the Akinite arrival.
Over time the worship of Baashelan slowly evolved into the Baesralite deity known as Eshel, initially as a form of henotheism, and later as their traditional monotheistic deity. An inscription from before the Baesralites’ own history seems to depict a prayer invoking both Eshel and a consort named Askam, who would have been derived from Baashelan’s wife in Uanan mythology, Askedun. In early Baesralite history it appears its people made an effort to separate their god from the earlier god(s), but despite this, many similarities between the two cultures’ religions would be preserved. According to the Baesralite Book of Isghra, Eshel dwells on the top of Mount Nur, similar to Baashelan, while Eshel is described with many of the epithets typically given to Baashel.
The collection of stories and scripture that would form the basis of the Baesralite religion is known as the Nilab, and would take numerous influences from the cultures of the surrounding region. From a historical perspective, the text of the Nilab is compiled from at least five different texts, each written in a different period of Baesralite history. The earliest leading theory is that from the oral tradition two forms of the story emerged, split between the north and south, with Source A in the north likely being the first written version, created around Year 100, and Source B in the south being written around Year 220. Source C is estimated to have been written around Year 400, Source D around Year 450, and the final version of the Nilab written at the earliest around Year 600.
In the earliest texts, called Eshelist texts, the deity Eshel appears as anthropomorphic to the people of the Baesralites, appearing as a man in versions of the Baesralite stories. As the earliest texts were written in the north, they appear to have a northern slant, mentioning that the southern peoples of the region took part in many atrocities, while praising certain northern leaders. Despite being dated as the earliest source, later historians would argue that Source A had to have been written after Year 300, as it seems conscious of certain societal changes that occurred at that time specifically. Source B differs in that the depiction of the Baesralite deity is more abstract, and often referred to by the name Murael, from the term for a “fear of god”, using angelic assistance in lieu of appearing directly.
These Muraelist texts inhabit a fascination with southern Baesralite figures, while speaking negatively of certain northerners, and also interestingly changing the religion’s mountain from Mount Nur to Mount Ralemesh. Also, despite the canonical Nilab stating that the hero Jelesh was of great importance after nearly being killed in an event early in his life, Source B claims he did in fact die, and he does not appear in any of his later stories. Source C consists of many different contradictions, and is often nicknamed the “Priest Texts” for its stressed importance of priests, shrines, elaborate rules, and the origins of rituals. In this text the deity of the Baesralites evolves over time, only appearing as Eshel directly in later Baesralite history.
Source D is dated to around Year 450, as it details a history of that time largely independent of the other sections of Baesralite history. Within this text the Baesralites receive divine instructions on how to reform their society, and it is speculated that the king at this time wanted to embark on these changes, creating this text to justify the change religiously. This source is also far more centralized, stressing adherence to a primary temple and a central government. Over time all sources would be combined, with historians speculating that two editors pieced together each text to create the canonical scripture of the Baesralites.
By Year 700 the canonical texts appear to have already been written, being referenced and mentioned by contemporary historians of the time. These writers describe the migration of the people from the sea and from the east, which ultimately led to the weakening of the southernmost kingdom of the Baesralites, known as Ceshamara. Their city fell soon after, with the invaders taking the lands for themselves. There the Baesralites were scattered into nine groups, known as the Nine Tribes, led by the “Judge” known as Cyrecesh. Under his leadership the tribes conquered the north to unite the region, and defeated the city of Niset on the northern end of the coast, which was likely settled by people of the islands.
The Book of Judges from the Nilab is the primary source for the history of the Baesalites, as far as the events from around Year 400 to 750. The time of Cyrecesh, however, marks a shift in the commentary, as the Judges of Baesel usurped power completely from any hereditary monarchy or other form of government. In effect the region had devolved from a small number of kingdoms to the Nine Tribes, a series of cities, and contested regions. The dynasty from Cyrecesh served as the head of the tribes, until the time of Gedesh a generation later. Gedesh was a leader from the Tribe of Goab, slaying the son of Cyrecesh, Luoch. Gedesh’s reign was short lived, as a hero of the tribes named Usnam, who was of low birth and prestige, managed to slay Gedesh.
Ironically, the nobles of the region then rejected Usnam, fearing he would usurp the tribes for himself, and he was forced to flee to the lands of Goab, working as a mercenary for several years. Despite this, the history of the judges is marked by a period of wisdom and relative peace. The nine judges of Baesel are known to have addressed each other as “brother”, sent lavish gifts and arranged marriages with each other, and cooperated on issues greater than the kings once did.
The Uphra Delta had recovered from the invasion by sea, had settled the invaders along the coast, and also began to take interest in the sea themselves. A warlord named Aquusceleb, possibly from the Muri River or of the confederation ethnically, became the leader of the small island of Obeneshocul. He would declare himself Lord of the Sea, possessing the largest navy of the time, which was assembled from the remnants of the seafaring invaders and from captured ships that the Muri cities had mustered.
In the south of Baesel, the Book of Judges ends with an Akinite invasion of the south. A descendant of Noįmeshúmes, named Nąmuradi, would lead the city of Usqema and the Yusur people against the west, defeating the Akinites of the coast, and reaching the region of Baesel. He first encountered the Tribe of Abendum, which had come to be ruled by the judge Demod. Abendum would be subjugated by the invaders, ending the relative peace among the Nine Tribes. During the war the exiled hero of Baesel, Usnam, fought in the war as a mercenary leader, and after the war he used foreign support to reassert control over his original tribe. The descendants of Cyrecesh then expanded as far north as Niset, becoming one of the dominant nations of the region.
Having exerted control over the entirety of the Uphra Delta, the city of Usqema became known as a “holy city”, where all legitimate Yusur rulers sought to be crowned. Conversely, the city’s transgressions against the Baesel region led to the city’s name became synonymous with dissolute power and excess. The city would become the largest in the Uphra Delta, with buildings of stone and brick replacing the older, wooden structures of the settlement. Along the river system the most powerful cities of the delta constructed canals, both for irrigation and for transportation. Although these ancient canals would not exist into modern times, their locations would be approximated from numerous references to them in various writings. In certain cities the Yusur also began to employ drainage system to control and collect rainwater and waste.
For approximately four decades the Baesel region was under the sway of the kings of the east, either in part or in whole, with various tribes and cities paying tribute to the Akinites or to Usqema itself. Although in their own words the people of Baesel largely despised this period in their history under foreign rule, the region became vastly more interconnected with the outside world, taking artwork, literature, architecture, and other facets of culture from across the greater region. According to the Baesrelite narrative, the time of the Akinites and the later judges was a time of great moral corruption, a turning away from the worship of Eshel, and the adoption of foreign customs that had been outlawed by their earlier prophets.
The Akinite city of Esin dominated and conquered the south, where a king known as Risusham-elnucush forced the people of Baesel toward the worship of false idols, slaughtered their judges, and created numerous slaves. North of him, two tribes came to be ruled by Jothebesh, after he killed the families of two judges before him. Due to his treachery, the Akinites further seized the influential port city of Gazuphan. Despite this, one of the weaker tribes of the region, Alosh, came to be ruled by a judge named Abuniden, who despite his poor situation, continued to praise Eshel and promote religion in his tribe. As a result, according to the Baesrelite scriptures, when the armies of Risusham-elnucush and Jothebesh surrounded him and attacked, he miraculously defeated the invaders, and pushed on to the sea, where Jothebesh was drowned.
As a result Gazuphan became an Akinite enclave, but it was spared as the governor decided against oppression toward the people of the city. In the north infighting between the tribes and against invaders was more frequent. In the city of Niset there came a judge by the name of Oshnehud, who was a descendant of Cyrecesh and Usnam, having gained control over the city through an alliance with the Akinites of the south. During his lifetime he would see the city initiate trade with the islands to the northwest, the primary island to the north, and across the Yusur region and beyond to the east. He would also commission the first colony across the narrow straits to the northern island, founding the city of Mosbinul.
Also according to the narrative of the Baesrelites, one colony of Niset would join the locals in their foreign customs, settling in the lands of Barakunishluba. It is said that Eshel destroyed this city, completely razing it to the ground. Historically, it is likely that the two civilizations became at odds quickly, with the Baesrelites possessing a technological advantage. Although few details exist about a hypothetical war between the two at this time in history, a later treaty is attested during the lifetime of Oshnehud’s son, Ongala, which delineates the exact borders of the southern end of the island. The Baesrelites asserted control over the southeast end of the island, up to the border with the city state of Alucugathul in the west, and the territory of Suun, promised to the island of Tamunduzan.
In the Baesel region, numerous prophets would speak out against the crimes committed by the leaders of the tribes, and their speeches, poems, and sayings are generally collected into works that would form a part of the region’s scripture. In Niset the prophet known as Zaramiseph was a principal figure. He asserted that the leader of the tribe had turned his back from the laws of the Basarelites, and had allowed the worship of foreign gods in the city. In the city’s temple it is said that he housed numerous idols, including those captured by war from Tamunduzan and Alucugathul, in addition to allowing general worship among foreigners of their own gods, which was a crime to Eshel. The Niselites had been corrupted by this conquest and power, and their religious authorities had been bribed to allow such crimes and bless such rulers, asserted the prophet Zaramiseph. And as consequence for these transgressions, Zaramiseph believed that Eshel would bring about divine judgement and destroy Niset, scatter the northern tribes, and send them in exile from the west. Few heeded the words of Zaramiseph, for they believed the north to strong, and protected by the south as a barrier.
The ruler in the city came to be Bedonidesh, who despite his great conquests and riches, was called one of the worst rulers by Zaramiseph for his lack of piety. After decades of such problems, prophetic warnings, and little change, retribution eventually came. In the region south of Baesel and southwest of the Uphra Delta, a dynasty known as the Hesushimladuin would come to dominate, and by the time of Zaramiseph they had invaded the Yusur region to conquer Usqema. Their leader became known as Lóphemągilud, adopted the language and customs of the Akinites that he conquered, assimilating into the hierarchy of Usqema. After the subjugation of the Yusur people. Lóphemągilud turned to Baesel. As prophesied, the cities of the region were brought to ruin, and the Baesrelites were scattered across the empire. Lacking a proper navy, the king in Usqema did not sail against the cities across the sea that the Nisetites had colonized, and they became de facto independent. However, soon after the fall of Niset the city states of the island, that had made peace with them before, turned on the colonies and united much of the south. Centered in Mosbinul, the king Sòsȕimún became the strongest ruler in the region, having been born of Baesrelite, Akinite, and native islander blood.
The reign of Lóphemągilud in Usqema proved prosperous, paving the way for the Nągilud Dynasty that succeeded him. The empire of Lóphemągilud would become the largest empire in the history of the region up to that point, with the rulers in Usqema ruling over a region from the Uphra Delta to Baesel to the far southwest. The Baesrelites were largely scattered around the empire, with many being brought to Usqema and beyond as slave labor. As such the period would be known as the Usqema Exile, and the foretold disaster that the prophets of Baesel forewarned of. The region of the west would be settled by the Yusur and others, intermingling with the Baesrelites that remained in the region. They would rebuild the cities, but also lay the foundations for new infrastructure connecting the differing regions.
In the seas of the north the Usqema authority did not extend to the various island kingdoms. Instead the island nation of Obeneshocul would develop into an important maritime power, as did Mosbinul further north. Over the next decade the various island kingdoms would compete heavily for hegemony over the northern sea, with the aforementioned two kingdoms being joined by the nations of Tamunduzan in the southwest, Zsuca in the northeast, and Pesdemod north of Obeneshocul. These states would all content over the northernmost island, with its native kingdoms caught in between. In this chaos, a king known as Xóclemuli would become the dominant force in the center of the island. Facing pressure on all sides by the maritime powers of the Yusur Sea, Xóclemuli would consolidate control around the city of Viyodą and create a native kingdom independent of their influences. Likewise, on the northeast most island a kingdom would be founded known as Syámaduphor.
After decades of prosperity the empire centered around Usqema fell to a series of weak kings, which saw the empire diminish in size greatly, and saw the Hesushimladuin Dynasty severely weakened. During the reign of Lóphemągilud II the southern valley between Usqema and the western mountains broke away from the empire once more, led by a Nunemite warlord named Ghúsimecel. They would successfully defend their domain from a retaliatory attack under Lóphemągilud II’s son, Aracuqsh, affirming their independence from Usqema and the Hesushimladuin. The two halves of the Usqema domain would be held together by the Akinite territory in the center, which launched an unsuccessful rebellion centered around the city of Umgupal and the Iconda River, which would be dispersed by Lóphemągilud II.
The difficulty of administering an empire so vast led to its fracture after Aracuqsh, with the far west and the far east falling to Kąslemólud and Niyòmacadeser respectively. The western half of the empire would be further short lived, as the ancient origin of the Hesushimladuin, the city of Karnuris, would fall to a southern group known as the Nasites. They would establish a new dynasty in the city itself, known as the Deseladuin, led by the leader Desela, who conquered the original extent of Karnuris’ kingdom, up to the northern mountains that separated the two regions of the west.
After the death of Kąslemólud the remains of his domain came to be ruled by a native nobleman named Sayimúaceles, who established his nation around the city of Nera, located northwest of Karnuris along the western coast. His kingdom would be plagued by war with Karnuris, as well as against various Akinites and other northerners. Soon after he established his kingdom, his nation shrank further to the border of the eastern mountains, as Ghúsimecel conquered the last vestiges of the empire east of the mountains. In the far north nations such as Syámaduphor are believed to have made contact with trade-oriented, far-reaching maritime nations, which opened the door for foreign contact with the outside world. Syámaduphor in particular would take a new interest in seafaring vessels and exploration, discovering the small islands to the northeast, the Jamuhlades, around this time. There they would establish a number of small settlements, which also became stopping points for larger expeditions into the region.
South of Usqema the city of Qopotas would be founded by adversaries of the northerners, possibly descended from people forced south by the migrating Yusur people along the Uphra River. The city would take an interest in trading with the nation of Melia, who arrived near the city around this time in history. Contact would be limited, however, owing the the difficult to traverse terrain in the south. The city of Qopotas exerted control over a large territory in the south during this period, becoming especially known for their control over the profitable mines at the source of the Uphra River, which supplied Usqema and parts of the Yusur region. The Nunemites are believed to have dominated the southern jungles up to the region of Melia, forming a natural boundary at the western mountains. However, after a period of decline, most of the south broke off into various independent kingdoms, and the north was conquered by a resurgent Akinite kingdom, which had broken off from Usqema territory. The supremacy of Usqema would be further challenged by Derushimasr of Usucach, who returned the lower delta under the control of an independent Yusur king.
Reign of Yaisaieh
By the early 800s the former Hesushimladuin Empire had come to be dominated by several powers: the Neo-Yusur Civilization centered around Usucach in the lower delta, the Yusur Kingdom of Qopotas, which stretched from the upper Usqema River to the borders of Melia, the Nunemites, the Akinite Kingdom of Gįmara, the Nasite Deseladuin Empire centered around Karnuris, the small remnant of Usqema, and the Kingdom of Nera. In 810 Karnuris' ruler Nimhezar formally adopted a title equivalent to "king of kings" or emperor. His reign corresponded to further expeditions to the south, leading to the nation conquering the entire southern coast up to the cities of the Friorian Culture. In 821 he is known to have led an inconclusive invasion of Melia, which resulted in his death in battle, halting further expansion. His successor Desela II would establish the city of Duindejal, which had been founded by his father five years earlier near Karnuris, as the new capital of the empire.
In 822 a war broke out between Sayimúaceles II of Nera and Desala II, as the northerners hoped to take advantage of instability in their southern neighbor, but this invasion was unsuccessful. After three years of warfare, the south gained the upper hand by supporting a rebellion in the Baesral region, resulting in the fracturing of Nera's control. The death of Desala II in 826 temporarily ended the conflict, but half of Nera's territory had effectively been split into independent city states, many of which paying tribute to the southern empire. Suffering under the strain of a prolonged conflict, both nations fell into some degree of civil war, with the south being split between supporters of Desala II's various descendants. Within a year his son Desala III was killed in battle by his nephew Duróduin, who claimed the title of emperor, while Duróduin's brother, Khusirun, was declared King of Óinladin, which consisted of the former territories of Nera and the region north of Karnuris. In Nera, Sayimúaceles II retained control over the throne despite a military-back plot to replace him with the successful general Aygilújes, who was captured and executed. He would spend 826 through 828 attempting to reconquer the northeastern and southern regions of his nation, to limited success. Numerous cities in Baesral and the surrounding area continued to resist, forming an alliance of mutual protection, spearheaded by a Baesralite prophet named Zurastim.
Zurastim is said to have been born to a sect of the Baesralites known as the Jarionites, which promoted simplistic living, rejection of the Judges' old authority, and an opposition to the exile. His early teachings began to diverge from Baesralite orthodoxy, and as such he was not necessarily sanctioned by the priestly authorities of the old temple, like earlier prophets had been, nor was he supported by any political forces initially. It was not until the wars in the 820s that he rose to power, as he was an early figure in promoting general rebellion against Neran authority, and would become one of many religious figures claiming that the fulfillment of old prophecy would soon take place. In 830 one of Khusirun's sons would launch his own expedition against the independent city states, proving to be an effective general and leader. He would eventually adopt the Baesralite name of Yaisaieh, forming the independent nation of Jeratsava. He was highly tolerant of the Baesralite faith, promoting the return of the exiles and the rebuilding of temples, which allowed him quick subjugation over much of the region. Zurastim's contingent proved to be an important army in Yaisaieh's conquests, and as such the king also tolerated the preaching of Zurastim and his movement, despite later protests that his teachings were heretical. In Zurastim's scripture the king was highly revered as the fulfillment of prophet, although there is little evidence that the king ever fully converted to Zurastim's faith.
Jeratsava received aid initially from Duróduin in Duindejal, as the emperor hoped to create a client state in the north that further weakened Nera. Sayimúaceles II's attempted invasion of Jeratsava in 831 would be successfully rebuked with Deseladuin's aid. However, Khusirun would be killed in the war, and Óinladin fully became a province of the empire, which would be the catalyst to uneasy tensions between Deseladuin and Jeratsava. The region of Tareshan, which corresponded to northwestern Nera, west of Baesral, remained largely split into independent kingdoms. Over the course of the next half decade the region would become the site of sporadic wars between Jeratsava and Nera, with the independent cities often caught in the middle of forced to pick a side. During this time a "High Judge" would also often be elected at various points, which represented the common goal of whichever cities remained independent from either power. In 833 the High Judge Mągaróud led a successful coalition that opposed an attack by Nera, and promptly occupied parts of its northern coastline. He also allied or conquered parts of the northern islands, loosely controlled all the independent cities, aside from Niset, which he allied with, and attempted to sow dissent in Jeratsava. Yaisaieh counterattacked in 837, leading to the conquest of parts of Tareshan, and again in 839, conquering Niset after an extensive siege. After the First Akinite-Jeratsava War (844-848), Jeratsava's borders were also expanded east.
One of Yaisaieh's biggest legacies would be in shaping the Baesralite religion post-exile. He is thought to have contributed to, or even personally written, the last sections of the Baesralite scripture, while also having a heavy hand in editing older customs. Under his reign a major upheaval of the region's religion occurred, supposedly based on lost instructions discovered during temple restorations, which also strengthened his authority. Many older temples would be destroyed or renovated, as old symbols were removed, and the remains of past priests were exhumed and destroyed. At the same time rival sects outside his borders, such as the Jurastim followers, also began to take shape and grow.
Around the same time as Yaisaieh's rise to power, a Nunemite dynasty managed to secure rule over Qopotas and unite the two realms, becoming the dominant power of the south. Under the rule of the union's first king, Túsimakames, numerous wars would be fought against the Yusur, Melians, and Akinites. Small concessions would be gained in the south in 841, while the Akinites were subjugated in 852, the latter of which with Jeratsava's help. Despite initially working together, the two kingdoms would then contest the region between the western mountains and the Agaesh River, leading to frequent conflict between the two nations for the next several years. Elsewhere, a king in Usqema named Yájocuqsh would manage to conquer Lake Gidis, while of the rest of the north, including the Muri region, fell to an emerging empire of the Edonites.
The religions of the ancient Yusur Civilization and its surrounding nations were mostly polytheistic, with some examples of monolatry and later monotheism also being present. Many religions of the region can be traced to a Proto-Sijuritic religion. The history of the Yusur Civilization spans more than two thousand years, with varied religious beliefs developing across its history, often being impacted by nearby cultures. Although there are exceptions, religions of the region follow similar trends and broad practices, including:
- City-state–sponsored religions (theocracy)
- Magic (invocations, conjurings and talismans)
The overall population of the Yusur Civilization in unknown, however, estimates can be made based on the population of individual cities, which are known from a combination of archaeological evidence and the Yusur peoples' record keeping. During the late Gàłsic Period, when Usqema became the dominant city of the Yusur and capital of an empire under Noįmeshúmes, the city is estimated to have had at least 40,000 people, with estimates being as high as 90,000. The city likely experienced a sharp decline in population during Lóphemągilud's invasion, however, the city's predominance in the Hesushimladuin Empire likely caused it to recover to pre-war levels, if not exceeding them, by the early to mid 800s.
Using this city as a benchmark, and based on the region's large agricultural population, a rough estimate for the Yusur Civilization's population in 800 might be 2,000,000 to 4,000,000. This includes 400,000 to 800,000 people along the Uphra Delta, 200,000 to 400,000 people in the Muri region, 250,000 to 600,000 in the Agaesh region, and 200,000 to 500,000 in the Baesral region. During this time the population of the entire continent is estimated to have been between 10,000,000 and 20,000,000 people, with the population of the entire globe estimated between 220,000,000 and 261,000,000 people.