Zuigaohuiyi

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Supreme Assembly of the Manchu Republic
ㄇㄢㄗㄨ ㄍㄨㄥㄏㄜㄍㄨㄛ ㄗㄨㄟㄍㄠ ㄧㄏㄨㄟ
Mǎnzú Gònghéguó Zuìgāo Yìhuì
Coat of arms or logo
Type
Type
Leadership
Co-chairman of the Zuigaohuiyi
Hu ZhengmingManzuxiehui
Since 19th August 2007
Co-chairwoman of the Zuigaohuiyi
Feng HuiyinNPP
Since 17th January 2016
Leader of the Official Opposition
Xu GuanzhongSPM
Since 17th January 2016
Structure
2016-01-17-14-22-10-603363-16204575391460313833.svg
Political groups

Majority Bloc

Official Opposition Bloc

  •      SPM (103)

Other opposition blocs

  •      QLH (23)
  •      MCP (21)
Length of term
5 years, renewable indefinitely
Elections
Parallel voting (AV; PPR)
Last election
22nd December 2015
Next election
22nd December 2020
Meeting place
51 big.jpg
Hall of the Supreme National Assembly
The Zuigaohuiyi (Chinese: ㄗㄨㄟㄍㄠㄏㄨㄟㄧ; Supreme Assembly) officially the Supreme Assembly of the Manchu Republic (ㄇㄢㄗㄨ ㄍㄨㄥㄏㄜㄍㄨㄛ ㄗㄨㄟㄍㄠ ㄧㄏㄨㄟ) is the unicameral national legislature of Manchuria. According to the 1989 constitution it serves as the sole legislative body of Manchuria, consisting of 685 seats.

The Zuigaohuiyi in its current form was formed in 1990 following the Orchid Revolution and the enactment of Manchuria's current constitution. Members of the Zuigaohuiyi are appointed through direct elections through parallel voting. 195 seats are for electoral constituents and elected through instant-runoff voting whereas the other 490 are elected using party-list proportional representation voting system with seats allocation being calculated using the D'Hondt method. The party or coalition that holds the most amount of seats in the Zuigaohuiyi is able to take the role of Chairman of the Assembly and thus set the agenda of the Zuigaohuiyi, with the current coalition being Three Party Protocol consisting of the Manzuxiehui, Progressive Alliance for Manchuria and United People's Party. The Socialist Party of Manchuria serves as the official opposition.

History[edit | edit source]

First Republic[edit | edit source]

The First Manchu Republic had a unicameral legislature known as the Legislative Assembly. The Legislative Assembly was elected through indirect elections where landowning and literate males voted for delegates to elect 50 members for the Legislative Assembly. All delegates and Assembly members were part of the Manzuxiehui which was the only legal political organisation. The Legislative Assembly officially was responsible for creating, debating over and repealing laws. The Legislative Assembly was a weak rubber stamping body with little real power, with the Premier, Zhao Guangping, alongside a small clique of military officers ruling the country. The Legislative Assembly's most significant power was to elect the Premier or pass a motion of no confidence, a power only exercised on the 21st April 1929 following the invasion of the first republic by Kuomintang forces when Zhao was voted out in favour of General Liang Pufang. When the First Republic was annexed into the Republic of China the Legislative Assembly was dissolved.

Manchukuo[edit | edit source]

Under the Manchukuo regime legislative power was officially vested in a Legislative Council. The Legislative Council like the Legislative Assembly before it was a ceremonial body that was subservient to the executive General Affairs State Council. All members of the Legislative Council were members of the Japanese backed Concordia Association of Manchukuo. Following the Soviet Invasion of Manchuria the Manchukuo government was dissolved alongside the Legislative Council.

Second Republic[edit | edit source]

At the creation of the Second Manchu Republic a Supreme Constituent Assembly was created by the government led by Zhao Guangping. The Supreme Constituent Assembly was made up of delegates from various opposition groups to the Manchukuo regime, the two largest being the Manzuxiehui and the Communist Party of Manchuria. It was created on the 11th December 1944 on the same day that the Second Manchu Republic was declared.

The Supreme Constituent Assembly was created to draft a constitution for the Republic and elect the Revolutionary Co-ordination Council, an executive body created to oversee the military efforts of the Manchu rebels who were fighting the Japanese. The Revolutionary Co-ordination Council was led by the Premier who was also elected by the Supreme Constituent Assembly. The Supreme Constituent Assembly like other legislative organs before it in Manchuria was largely subordinated to the executive, although the CPM used the Supreme Constituent Assembly as a springboard to extend their influence over parts of Manchuria. During the Second Republic the Constituent Assembly drew up plans to create two legislative chambers (collectively known as the Chambers of the Republic) - the Chamber of Councillors and the Chamber of Deputies. However, due to the short existence of the Second Republic and its political instability such chambers were never created.

People's Republic[edit | edit source]

Following the declaration of the Manchu People's Republic a new legislature was declared, the People's Supreme Assembly. It was a 685 member body that was directly elected in what were intended to be democratic elections in 1946. The election (later admitted to be rigged) saw the Communist Party of Manchuria win 400 seats with the remaining 285 being allotted to pro-communist parties and organisation (eg. the Party of Agrarian Reform and the Manchu Union Federation). Elections were done through a system of parallel voting, although only one candidate appeared on the ballot paper.

The People's Supreme Assembly was like many legislatures of Marxist-Leninist single-party state was a rubber stamp body that was subordinate to the Communist Party. The People's Supreme Assembly elected the Premier of the National Democratic Council, which was a ceremonial office as the First Secretary of the CPM held overall power. In 1983 communist leader Tao Shiyou held a direct election for the premier. During its existence the People's Supreme Assembly held almost no power - it was dominated by the Democratic Front for Socialism, led by the CPM who always held above 400 seats.

Third Republic[edit | edit source]

Functions and powers[edit | edit source]

Current composition[edit | edit source]

Logo Name Seats held
Constituency seats Proportional seats
MRNC logo (1934-2011).png Manzuxiehui (滿清革命全國代表大會) 285 seats 88 197
NPP.png New Progressive Party (新進步黨) 212 seats (part of Progressive Alliance for Manchuria) 77 135
Green Party of Manchuria logo.png Green Party (綠黨) 11 seats (part of Progressive Alliance for Manchuria) 2 9
Democratic Union for Change Logo.png Democratic Union for Change (變化民主聯盟) 10 seats (part of Progressive Alliance for Manchuria) 2 8
Socialist Party of Manchuria.png Socialist Party of Manchuria (滿洲社會黨) 103 (in opposition) 20 83
Freedpm flag.png Qinglonghui (青龍社会) 23 seats (in opposition) 3 20
WPM logo .png Manchu Communist Party (社會民主黨) 21 (in opposition) 2 19
521px-MPP.png United People's Party (聯合人民黨; 미국 사람들의 당) 20 seats (in opposition) 1 19

Structure[edit | edit source]

Electoral structure[edit | edit source]